Residents also use the mangrove forests for timber, fuelwood, medicinal purposes, crafts, and more.
Lindur flour, which is processed from the fruit of the Bruguera gymnorhiza mangrove tree. CIFOR-ICRAF/Aulia Erlangga
Crackers made from lindur flour. CIFOR-ICRAF/Aulia Erlangga
The leaves and fruit of the mangrove trees can be eaten, too, and some community members dry and grind it into flour, which can then be made into a range of processed products.
Mufidah, a batik artisan, uses mangrove tree trunks as natural dyes for the batik she produces. CIFOR-ICRAF/Aulia Erlangga
Batik cloth with a mangrove tree pattern, complete with its roots. CIFOR-ICRAF/Aulia Erlangga
For each of the three research sites, the researchers are undertaking a coastal vulnerability assessment, which examines three dimensions: exposure to stresses, associated sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. The assessment takes into account a wide range of variables, including geomorphology, shoreline change, the coastal slope, the tidal range, mean sea level, wave height, stakeholder engagement and community awareness.
They also carry out socio-economic surveys, which assess the contribution of mangroves to the livelihoods, food security and nutrition of the local communities. This includes consideration on the gender dynamics of these issues, which can vary from place to place: for instance, in Banyuwangi, women usually collect shellfish (such as oysters and clams), while in Demak, fishing is mostly done by men, and women are generally involved in post-catch activities such as sorting, selling, and processing. In both areas, mothers are usually responsible for managing food budgets and deciding what foods are to be bought.