Economic criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management

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    Managing forests sustainably involves ecology, social aspects, and economics. A recent CIFOR paper by Jack Ruitenbeek and Cynthia Cartier called ’Rational Exploitations: Economic Criteria and Indicators for Sustainable Management of Tropical Forests’ discusses the latter aspect.

    The paper’s five main lessons are:

    * Look beyond simple efficiency to consider equity and sustainability.

    * Keep your focus on the stand of trees, but don’t forget the policies and institutions that affect the stand.

    * Pay as much attention to stocks and assets as to flows and income.

    * Be prepared for surprises and exercize precaution in forest management.

    * Keep the criteria and indicators simple to permit an easy assessment of trade-offs.

    The paper provides a list of recommended criteria and indicators and a list of indicators that should be avoided, as well as an evaluation of the economic criteria and indicators recommended by the International Tropical Timber Organization, the African Timber Organization, the Amazon Cooperation Treaty countries, the German Initiative on Tropical Forests, the UK Soil Association, the Rainforest Alliance, and the Indonesian Ecolabeling Institute.

    The paper suggests that manager and certifiers avoid the use of indicators such as internal rates of return, economic valuations of ecological services, and complex indices of wealth and income distribution. The authors’ own proposed set of economic criteria and indicators include four basic principles, twelve criteria that can help operationalize those principles, and forty specific indicators that help assess whether the criteria are being met.

     

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    Further reading

    If you would like to comment on this message, please write to Jack Ruitenbeek at mailto:hjruiten@web.net

    To obtain a copy of the paper, write to Ravi Prabhu at mailto:r.prabhu@cgiar.org When you request the paper, let us know if we can send it to you electronically in PDF format and, if not, what alternative might be best for you.

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    9 responses to “Economic criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management”

    1. Rupam Kumar Gogoi says:

      Primarily in community
      participation for SFM ,which is very common locally ,through leadership .In
      case of local community participation for SFM , usually one single individual
      or groups of individuals come-out ,from a social group, [Excluding local
      club, self-help group, youth organization etc. also,mainly in villages, (Villages
      within legally protected forests and villages with Trees Outside Forest ,the TOF) ]. By social group, I
      mean few neighbors of same type of
      social attitudes in homely / household affairs, with same type of
      thinking pattern and thinking level, in the village areas .

      Like mental state of
      wild-life (faunae), human being also have a CRITICAL period in
      their growing age. During this period or age, immature inner mind of people,
      desire to learn from anything or any theme “Surrounding” them, including formal or informal education also. The
      “Surrounding” may be schools, colleges, other educational institutions etc. or
      the learning from the people, whom he meets or faces, frequently in his daily
      life- pattern. In this prospects ,Indian
      social human community almost learn about or develop the agitational or revolutionary
      enthusiastic thinking ,which
      characteristic and quality has been passing via thoughts of Indian community
      ;one generation after another generation, from the year of independence (1947) or since the year of
      recognition of democracy (1950)
      , of India , thus ,emergence of social
      leadership quality, in social sector (Political, non-political, literary,
      cultural, traditional field etc.) are very logical and very familiar for
      our country .It may be better to think, on this prospects also ;in the duration
      of :-

      Community SFM Processing:-

      (1) Initiation : Followed byà

      (2) Continuation:
      Simultaneously or Followed by
      à

      (3) Management, according to necessity,

      till ending of the
      consequences ,as a part of Community Participation ;towards sustainability of
      protected forests and towards sustainability of
      Tree Outside Forest.
      Sustainability may be in the direction of more fruitful; if proper conservation, uniform maintenance,
      or necessary enhancement of vulnerable ,endangered, rare, threatened species
      etc. of florae and faunae are undertaken. These three measures together, or any
      two measures together, or any single one or judicious mixture of these three or
      two measures may be effective, to maintain sustainability. In this way, to
      formulate policy and principles of community participation, historical analysis
      may be effective to few extents; in the Nationalistic division (e.g.
      formation of countries etc.) or unification of the countries towards
      continents of the globe. It is necessary to view on conceptual historical
      infrastructural and economic
      infrastructural history of Country formation (as Indian origin of
      Mauritius), of the globe, status of the opposition parties of different
      countries ,electional configurations and
      infrastructures mainly of European Countries (as of union) etc.
      and of African countries; based on sensitization factors to unify the different
      oppositional or administrational (as Governments) parties of the
      other countries, towards India, with reference as intermediate position of
      India, in the globe. These factors may help to enhance global status of our country ; as like the, religious belief
      and faith were the base of formation of Pakistan and East Pakistan (Bangladesh,
      at Present).Sir, then, what might be the concept of MIDDLE Pakistan
      ,before the year 1947 or 1950 or for the
      presents’ B(Bangladesh).N.P.? Still, there may be a
      internationalist relationships between these two above mentioned countries.

      In Context to Local Community
      Participation:-

      Study of food-webs or
      food-chains or mixture of food-webs of different types and its sustainability,
      maintenance, through monitoring and evaluation by the local communities (through
      guidance and direction of proper authority, individuals) may forward
      towards sufficiently fruitful community participation for S-F-M and for
      S-TOF-M, in regional or local aspects. Senior communities (as rural
      parents, guardians etc.) may be sensitized or inspired for such type of
      activities, by providing free supportive general education ;to their
      children or to the interested ,but
      depressed uneducated youths (male and female) ,following their
      school curriculum/syllabus and required educational interests
      respectively (Educational Community Participation for SFM). With
      supportive general education (at certain intervals of few days, in a
      week);it is also possible to offer knowledge on food-webs,
      anti-environmental communities phenomena etc.(it may be towards virginity concept of forests)to
      attempt for sustainability of
      biodiversity and abio-diversity as
      portions of Forest Management Practices
      ,in regional aspects.

      Offering free supportive
      general education (e.g. to village children / youth etc.)
      may be or almost is the best, simple & clear path; for community sensitization ,of community
      sustainability. Parallely, it may also be possible to know about local economic values of the forest (through
      Holistic approach),trees ,plants,
      shrubs, etc. ;which are maintained by definite household / families etc.
      to proceed towards Forest Resource Accounting (FRA) ,then
      Sustainable Forest Certification , by imitating the Criteriae and Indicators
      and then towards, initiation of sustainable export on local ,regional ,national or
      international basis (it may be through ‘Stillwell Road’ connecting Locally Kungming of
      South China through Burma from Assam of India) ;accompanied by
      proper revenue planning ;with financial courtesy and with
      CRITERIAE of donor groups / agencies established in, local towards
      global level ,and their implementation towards local or micro level for SFM
      .The indicators of such Direct CRITERIAE of donor groups/agencies
      /establishments etc., for
      Sustainable Forest Management (With S-TOF-M) are also present and is not clear in my mind till now.

      Regarding Local Criteriae & Indicators :

      (1) Degree and impact (that can be measured by
      different parameters as livelihood, pollution by insecticides, pesticides, inorganic fertilizers, population
      etc. of human being ) from
      surrounding human habitat ,on an area of
      environmental Secondary Community Succession (Denudation),may
      also ,probably be a indicator of the FIXED
      Criterion 1: “Maintenance/increase in the extent of forest and tree
      cover”, mainly in single study area level ,of secondary succession.
      Because, in the duration of secondary succession, when first floral community
      /communities are decreased in number ,in
      mass, by natural sustainable phenomena (Floral destructive phase of Secondary succession ,but this destruction
      and regeneration is very systematic with many sub-steps, and there may be some
      sub-indicators for this),human activities directly or indirectly affect the naturally changing area, (as
      by chemical fertilizers, insecticides ,pesticides etc.) ,mainly by
      flood-water flow ,in or about simultaneously of the summer season; from
      tea-gardens , cultivational , agricultural field , by single individual or from
      organized sectors, of investment towards
      lands. Thus, amount of specific fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides , applied
      in or near an area of an Secondary
      Succession ,may be Indicator or even Sub-Indicator (Study of some
      sub-indicators within an Indicator may temporarily be helpful, supportive ,for
      the study duration),if in details; leading to lessen ,in tree number and
      also influencing the Criterion 1 : Maintenance/increase in the extent of
      forest & tree cover, for increase
      of trees and forests in successive generation .Interdependency (may
      lead towards Sub-indicators) of one flora on other flora, fauna etc. [as
      water-hyacinth is noticed with some other florae, which are the feeding, even
      nesting places of some endangered species of
      semi-aquatic birds etc.(the photograph of such habitat was
      sent in my power point opinion, about C
      & I ,of Management Development Programme, from 18-th to 21-st November,2008
      in Bhopal)] may play major role during destruction and regeneration
      phases of secondary succession.

      (2)Change of position of NICHE (Mainly of nests)
      ,of few species of birds, in the same plant or
      in species of same plant, have also been guessed by me, due to interferences of human community ,pertaining to unsustainability in
      the area leading towards, decrease in number of florae /Trees/ Shrubs or decrease in number of current leaves,
      twigs etc. in a single vital plant/tree etc., affecting the current
      Food-web there.

      *It is better to exist
      single office level [Governmental
      ,non-governmental ,Private ,Limited (Ltd.) etc.] C & I, even up-to branch and
      sub-branch level, collaborative & pertaining to local community/area,
      where activities of the particular office , has to be implemented.

      Rupam Kumar Gogoi,

      Milan Nagar,E-Lane,

      M.N. Road ,P.O.C. R .Building,

      Dist :Dibrugarh,

      State :Assam

      Country: India

      M:+91-9706646150

    2. Rupam Kumar Gogoi says:

      Point=1 :

      ”’Different types of Articles/imaginary hypothetical practical stories may be written summarizing all the imaginary possible views of all the Criteriae & Indicators system of Sustainable Forest Management ,for single Forest accompanied by Forest Dependent and Independent Communities.’
      All the indicators may be summarized to view a single Sustainably Managed Forest Villages, with reference to the C & I System.
      The Indicators may be divided in my look-out as :(1)Conservation Indicator,(2)Maintenance Indicator,(3)Enhancement Indicator,(4 )
      Natural resource Indicator,(5)Secondary Succession Indicator or Denudation Indicator,(6)Treated Forest Area Indicator,(7)Ethnic Indicator,(8)Jurisdictional Indicator,(9)Non-Destructive Harvesting Indicator,(10)Non-Destructive Recorded Removal Indicator,(11)Non-Destructive Demand Indicator,(12)Non-Destructive Supply Indicator,
      (13)Non-Destructive Export Indicator,(14)Non-Destructive Import Indicator,(15)Financial Indicator,(16)Survey Indicator,(17)Administrational Indicator……
      Each of these indicators may be divided in to different types of study topics/categories.Perhaps ,all these 17 numbers of indicators may be arranged in above mentioned seriality or sequence ,to get an Ideal Sustainably Managed Forest Village. These Indicators are applicable for India ,primarily.On addition to economic criteriae and indicators ; florae and faunae specific criteriae and indicators;focusing upon endangered,rare,threatened,vulnerable species etc. also may be effective…

      Point=2:

      The following may be a subjective tool to view the global human habitat field for focusing on C and I for SFM study :

      It may be necessary the discussion and exchange of
      knowledges on Conceptual and fundamental Initiative in
      local level or in single individual level; for analysis
      ,evaluation ,assesment of schematic strategies of
      different country governments ;e.g. country with a single
      or few states; country with many states accompanied by
      democratic, republic, socialistic ,federal capitalistic or
      mixed capitalistic governmental infrastructure ; within
      the purview of administrational officials and electionally
      nominated parties; viewing globally and internationally,
      the implicit and explicit aims, objectives and strategies
      of Various types of World Summit; primarily insisting
      upon Sustainable Development. Discussion on
      Sustainable Forest Resource Certification, Forest
      Resource Accounting and Valuation in internationally
      effective influensive currencies; in comparison to gold,
      oils and so on ;viewing towards different country unions
      and global unions, high incomes” Northern Countries,
      Countries of Middle East Countries ,Oriental countries of
      the globe and so on, is expected ,initially .
      I am hereby
      going to present my nominal views on Community
      Forest Management, as I am basically pertaining to
      Community Forest Management interests with wildlife
      affinities entity, for IIFM-ITTO. These include
      some my opinions, on Local
      environmental impact’s issues, with reference to my
      native town/district or to few extent to North-East
      regional aspects.
      My primary views on local/ North –East
      Regional aspects of the country:
      Comparative study of Criteriae & Indicators of IIFMITTO(
      International Tropical Timber Organization) are still
      being followed by the sustainable traditional tribes, or
      necessary to be followed by rural ,semi-rural or urban
      areas ,in the North–East India with maintenance of
      environmental sustainability. It may be possible to
      attempt to give Environmental sustainability; to the
      framework, as SFM (Sustainable Forest Management)
      and STOFM (Sustainable Tree Outside Forest
      Management) with the guidelines of IIFM-ITTO
      references, at local or regional level, at first and
      primarily. The impact of globalized factors on the
      traditional cultures ,in North-East India(in local or
      regional impact), may be a tool for partially, globally
      impacted sustainable revenue increment methodology
      innovations, which appears to be one of the significant
      explicit interests and affinity, for Western
      travelers(tourists) of mainly the developed countries
      ,with their arrival towards North-East India. In North-East
      India, all the sustainable traditional cultures are not
      ,presently completely sustainable to the surrounding
      environment(Although it is globally accepted that ALL
      TRADITIOAL CULTURES ARE SUSTAINABLE) .The
      traditional Ethno-biological uses of different parts of
      wild florae and of wild faunae ,including presently
      declared endangered species, vulnerable species ,rare
      species, threatened species etc. [ as claw of tiger
      (Panthera tigris),Skin of deers , roots or other parts of
      some endangered orchids or of other parts of almost all
      endangered, rare, vulnerable, threatened florae and
      faunae as mentioned in Red Data Book of International
      Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural
      Resources(IUCN) etc. ] are not sustainable at present
      duration in Assam , Arunachal Pradesh or over all in
      North-East India. Sustained Yield Forestry or yield
      through investment of labors and services towards native
      land ,is better to be under the policy capacity of
      Indigenous farmers or indigenous proletarians, than
      higher economic class of people, bureaucrats etc., which
      should be accompanied by sustainable certification of
      renewable with valuation based on environmental
      friendliness, in the activities on renewable and nonrenewable
      solid(e.g. growing stock of wood), liquid(e.g.
      water) and gaseous goods(e.g. air) and concerned
      services on forest resources .Because, in North-East India
      ,for environmentally sustainable tribal peoples (plains
      and hills) ;the forest was for him; in ethical point of
      view,[as by Verrier Elwin (Ref. A Philosophy for
      NEFA/North –East Frontier Agency)].But due to, issues
      like unsustainable livelihood, lack of managerial
      autonomy of tribal indigenous people etc. on native
      land, also has influenced this traditional ethics, in most of
      the legally protected forest & TOF area. Biodiversity
      conservation, maintenance and enhancement, as a part
      of Sustainable Forest Management has various aspects at
      local or regional level.
      Taxation etc. as the tools for Sustainable
      Industrialization, policy at local/regional level
      for the global policy instrument the “
      Sustainable development” :
      It may also be better to be taken into consideration ,the
      Criteriae and Indicators concerned facts of Sustainable
      Forest Management ,in the purview of Tea-forest
      Resource Accounting and Valuation(Taxation/Revenue),
      in Natural Gas Cracking Technology(Presently under
      Construction Gas Cracker, in Dibrugarh)with its human
      benefited component products, Oil Extracting-Refining-
      Limiteds/Commissions (e.g. O.I.L.; O.N.G.C.;N.R.L. etc.)
      through IIFM-ITTO guidelines etc., as a tool to evaluate
      Sustainable Revenue Increment Policy, as an attempt
      for institutionalization of Criteriae and Indicators
      Concept in these eastablishments,under the guidance of
      IIFM-ITTO.
      As in tea-garden industries ,excluding uses of pesticides
      ,insecticides ;which are still to be sustainability favoring
      ,but tea plants with shade providing trees ,in urban or
      rural areas, provide nesting, sheltering fooding habitats
      for many endangered ,rare, threatened birds ,reptiles
      ,insects species etc. also with invertebrate organisms and
      also contribute in environmental balance of Carbon
      dioxide gas ,in the area, to a higher extent as compared
      to other types of industries in the area, with traditional
      tea-gardens communities, immigrated by the Mandate
      of British Empire, before Independence(year 1947). It
      may be possible to view-up such man –made industrial
      cultivation/plantation, under the Taxation-revenue
      rebate scenario, with sustainable but hidden tea-garden
      communitys’ cultures. The immigrated traditional
      cultures of Tea-garden communities are still being
      Sustainable to the local environment.
      Since, farming/plantation of industrial and economic
      plants, which undergoes C-4 Pathways(Hatch-Slack
      Pathway) of Dark Reaction of Photosynthesis, have no
      inhibitory effect of oxygen, can adjust to high Carbon
      dioxide concentration ,Higher rate of photosynthesis, low
      level of Photo-respiration with maximum utilization of
      Carbon dioxide and less uses of oxygen, can adjust to
      high carbon dioxide concentration and Carbon dioxide
      absorption in comparison to the Plants of C-3,C-2
      photosynthetic pathways’ plants, in the area ,therefore,
      to favor sustainable Tree Outside Forest management
      and Sustainable Industrialization ; the economic or
      industrial plantation of local C-4 plants as Maize (Zea
      mays L.) Sugar-cane(Saccharum officinarum L.) may be
      previewed into Environment friendly Sustainable
      Industrialization Scenario,as Indian initiatives ,in order to
      patronize Sustainable Industrial Community Forest
      Management and Conservation with rebate in Taxes ,in
      order to patronize it at local or regional level or at single
      individual level. Tax rebate may be compensated, by
      means of ,increasing tax-customs quantum through
      imposing additional money value on industries,
      establishments with unsustainable production of raw
      materials from legally protected but forest area of
      permitted felling and from Natural resources extraction
      establishments, in revenue providing area’s of human
      community. Taxation may be imposed on intermediate
      products also, initiating from the range of Environmental
      or Earth-crust related raw materials; up to the status of
      final/last stage products for marketing, on their
      transportation in intra-country or inter –country level.
      Beside earth-crust productive sectors, Sustainable Tax-
      Custom-Revenue generation and increment concept
      may be implemented in developmental activity sectors,
      service sectors etc. in the society ,to favor all kinds of
      social activities of human being (Industrial ,Quasi-public
      and public activity, Corporate activity ,economic
      developmental perspective, governmental & nongovernmental
      ,private activity and so on) for to attempt
      for Bio-diversity Conservation in the already destructed
      Virgin Globe . For this purpose, it is better to add
      community infrastructural concept, with Marxian Class
      Analysis in Multi –electional Groups’ Democratic
      Administrative Indian System, for almost successful
      implementation in social field (Family, household, local
      club, panchayat etc.).
      Natural earthy virgin environmental biodiversity is better
      to be favored by people entangled with Ethno biological
      Human society. The North –Eastern Region of India is rich
      in Ethno biological cultures, which may be compared, in
      resemblance/similarity, in ethical and ethnical point of
      view, with the some of the countries of South-East Asia.
      Definition of ethnobiology may comprise the following
      issues as componental parts for various human
      conventional community sectors , which can be
      dynamically viewed as :
      (1)Cultural (in art ,literature or other indigenous
      intellectual expressions of different upper and lower
      economic classes of people)
      (2)Religious (Pertaining to worshipping gods and God
      ,as Wild-life are worshipped by some people locally
      ,since they are also considered as the companions of
      Gods ,by some ethnical forest villagers locally)
      (3)Social (a family or household entangled with
      ethno biology as a smallest structure of the society)
      (4)Traditional (The passing beliefs or customs, locally
      from one generation to next
      generation)
      (5)Ethical (Moral principles of rules of behavior
      towards ethno biology)
      (6)Ethnical (Race or tribe prospects, that have a
      common cultural tradition)
      (7)Medicinal (For the benefit of forest villager
      community as well as domestic animals)
      In my Community Forest Management Concept, the
      human community habitat’s infra-structure may be
      summarized as:
      (1) Urban area,
      (2)Semi-urban area (where urban impact is dominant,)
      (3)Semi-rural area (where rural impact is dominant),
      and
      (4)Rural area
      (5)Unstable and Sensitive Alluvial Area
      (6) Forest Villages in Reserve Forest and Forest Villages,
      in Bio-sphere Reserve and so on.
      Slum area may be or is distinct in above mentioned, first
      five numbers of human dominant Earth-Crust.
      Preparation of schemes based on economic
      developmental objectives, following C and I of IIFM-ITTO,
      for the slum area people, by respective authority
      may be one of the basic instruments for poverty
      alleviation and eradication attempt, as a part of
      sustainable urbanization and also as an additional source
      of Domestic Revenue Regeneration and Sustainable
      Industrialization in community level.
      From these points of view, Revenue, Customs and Excise
      concept may be added to the overall of Concept of
      Revenue( following US concept) for money value
      increment methodology at national level in political
      nationalistic demarcation .
      The alluvial area locally, in the bank of the river
      Brahmaputra may be included under the area of Primary
      Natural Ecological Succession, where seeds etc. of
      fruiting or other types of economic plants mainly comes
      by the river current by Avian semi-aquatic species,
      resulting natural economic and ecological plantations in
      the area. Such areas of Primary succession or the areas of
      Secondary Succession etc. with human economic
      productivities etc. may be previewed under
      Environmental-Succession-Revenue-Taxation-Customs
      scenario, as part of Community Protected Tree Outside
      Forest. Tax-Customs financial rebate may also be
      possible in the Production sectors, where species of
      endangered, rare, threatened, vulnerable species of
      florae and faunae is presently pre-dominant. It might
      inspire Industrial communities, as a tool for Industrial
      Community Forest Management to favor Biodiversity
      Conservation.
      All these topics may be innovative study topic, in Socio-administrational
      Institutional Capacity(to apply and
      benefit within Sustainable Forest Managemental and
      Bio-diversity Conservational aspects)Building Initiatives
      .The topic may also help to initiate for finding out
      mandatory principles and C and I to be implemented by
      the official department or departments .
      ——————————————————————–
      ——–
      Contribution in goods and services ,in sensitization and
      viewing environmental conservational and
      managemental objectives and goals in technical
      formality ,may be possible with the consultation of
      some Nationally or Internationally recognized forest
      management institutes and with concerned resource
      persons, globally giving proportional importance in a
      holistic approach to ethical, changed ethnical ,cultural
      and traditional aspects etc. from biological, Human
      sociological ,educational or other academicals scenario.
      Bio-diversity conservational fundamental concept may
      be added to technical pathways of administrational
      attempt with indirect constructive departmental
      contributions, in the environment and nature.
      It might be possible to come-out ,with the goal and
      objective of Bio-diversity conservation, with Zoo-ethical
      feelings, with the wishes of free education to poors and
      proletarians of Rural India and with Zoo-biological
      feelings ,towards global perspectives, with the impact of
      concept of Sustainable Forest Resource Accounting and
      Valuation methodology in the Policy and protocols of
      Taxation(Production) and Customs(Transportation) and
      in Revenue(Money generation), as Sustainable Industrial
      Socio-economic Development ,to favor for a proposed
      Global Council of Scientific and Sustainable Industrial
      Research(GCSSIR) ,with the explicit and implicit policies
      of IMF,WTO,WB and so on, by means of Sustainable
      Forest Resource Certification .It may be mandatory to
      expand,the
      concept of Criteriae and Indicators of Sustainable Forest
      Management, Sustainable Forest Certification, Forest
      Resource Accounting and Valuation in a country in their
      own currency and then conservation it to dollar or to any
      other its contradictory currency/currencies with
      reference to the aim of its international trades ,e .g.
      through Present East-West Corridor , within the range of
      Global Middle East Countries, that might be
      mandatorily managed ; in purview of ,consideration of
      the country ,to which I am being ,as the trade centre for
      South-East Asia and South-West Asia or in regional
      aspects, through the Still-Well Road,( named in memory
      of Major General Joseph Warren Stillwell ;during second
      world war )of the length about 1726 Kilometer to
      Kungming of South China ,from Assam state ,is being
      repaired and reschemed from Assam state to China
      through Burma, mainly for trading purpose .There may
      be imaginary view for attempting India, to restructure as
      the Image of South Asian world trade centre, through the
      under-construction of East-West Corridor; in order to
      meet the policy challenges, collaboratively and
      cooperatively, of implicit and explicit aims and
      objectives its donor international establishments ;that
      corridor has been being under-construction, through
      country India .It might be considered, to restructure, in
      the view of Sustainable Trading ;as a tool of Sustainable
      Industrializations, to favor Global Sustainable
      Development, in regional context. Among the explicit
      and implicit, international policy network, in the purview
      of open ,primarily economic liberalization and
      secondarily cultural globalization ethics and philosophy,
      it might be also possible to focus on Environmentally
      Sustainable Country formation ,by the internationally
      more skilled countries/more skilled financial
      establishments, institutions etc., for the development
      and economic differentiation of third world
      ,underdeveloped countries, that are that are
      economically poor, but most of which are still rich, bioresource
      concerned facts or in wildlife, in general
      accompanied by the fundamental aim of
      Environmentally Sustainable GREEN COUNTRY
      FORMATION. There may be the possibility for the third
      world countries, in such aspects.
      The aim of our comparative study might be in the
      direction of fulfilling the achievements of Various types
      of World Summits (e.g. WSSD)in single individual level or
      at grass-root level, as poverty eradication attempt etc.
      ,or the protocols ,principles, agenda etc. of different
      international and global institutions/establishments(e.g.
      IMF, WTO,WB,ADB etc.) that may be purviewed ,in my
      nominal global views.

      Point =3 :

      Primarily I have mentioned my only opinion ,on community participation for SFM ,which is very common locally ,through leadership .In case of local community participation for SFM , usually one single individual or groups of individuals come-out ,from a social group, [Excluding local club, self-help group, youth organization etc. also,mainly in villages, (Villages within legally protected forests and villages with Trees Outside Forest ,the TOF) ]. Social group, means few neighbors of same type of social attitudes in homely / household affairs, with same type of thinking pattern and thinking level, in the village areas .

      Like mental state of wild-life (faunae), human being also have a CRITICAL period in their growing age. During this period or age, immature inner mind of people, desire to learn from anything or any theme “Surrounding” them, including formal or informal education also. The “Surrounding” may be schools, colleges, other educational institutions etc. or the learning from the people, whom he meets or faces, frequently in his daily life- pattern. In this prospects ,Indian social human community almost learn about or develop the agitational or revolutionary enthusiastic thinking ,which characteristic and quality has been passing via thoughts of Indian community ;one generation after another generation, from the year of independence (1947) or since the year of recognition of democracy (1950) , of India. Thus ,emergence of social leadership quality, in social sector (Political, non-political, literary, cultural, traditional field etc.) are very logical and very familiar for our country .It may be better to think, on this prospects also ;in the duration of :-

      Community SFM Processing:-
      (1) Initiation : Followed by
      (2) Continuation: Simultaneously or Followed by
      (3) Management, according to necessity,
      till ending of the consequences ,as a part of Community Participation ;towards sustainability of protected forests and towards sustainability of Tree Outside Forest. Sustainability may be in the direction of more fruitful; if proper conservation, uniform maintenance, or necessary enhancement of vulnerable ,endangered, rare, threatened species etc. of florae and faunae are undertaken. These three measures together, or any two measures together, or any single one or judicious mixture of these three or two measures may be effective, to maintain sustainability. In this way, to formulate policy and principles of community participation, historical analysis may be effective to few extents; in the Nationalistic division (e.g. formation of countries etc.) or unification of the countries towards continents of the globe. It is necessary to gain knowledge on conceptual historical infrastructural and economic infrastructural history of Country formation (as Indian origin of Mauritius), of the globe, status of the opposition parties of different countries ,electional configurations and infrastructures mainly of European Countries (as of union) etc. and of African countries; based on sensitization factors to unify the different oppositional or administrational (as Governments) parties of the other countries, towards India, with reference as intermediate position of India, in the globe. These factors may help to enhance global status of our country ; as like the, religious belief and faith were the base of formation of Pakistan and East Pakistan (Bangladesh, at Present). Then, what might be the concept of MIDDLE Pakistan ,before the year 1947 or 1950 or for the presents’ B(Bangladesh).N.P.? Still, there may be a internationalist relationships between these two above mentioned countries./////////////////////////////////////////

      In Context to Local Community Participation:-
      Study of food-webs or food-chains or mixture of food-webs of different types and its sustainability, maintenance, through monitoring and evaluation by the local communities (through guidance and direction of proper authority, individuals) may forward towards sufficiently fruitful community participation for S-F-M and for S-TOF-M, in regional or local aspects. Senior communities (as rural parents, guardians etc.) may be sensitized or inspired for such type of activities, by providing free supportive general education ;to their children or to the interested ,but depressed uneducated youths (male and female) ,following their school curriculum/syllabus and required educational interests respectively (Educational Community Participation for SFM). With supportive general education (at certain intervals of few days, in a week);it is also possible to offer knowledge on food-webs, anti-environmental communities phenomena etc.(it may be towards virginity concept of forests)to attempt for sustainability of biodiversity and abio-diversity as portions of Forest Management Practices ,in regional aspects.
      Offering free supportive general education (e.g. to village children / youth etc.) may be or almost is the best, simple & clear path; for community sensitization ,of community sustainability. Parallely, it may also be possible to know about local economic values of the forest (through Holistic approach),trees ,plants, shrubs, etc. ;which are maintained by definite household / families etc. to proceed towards Forest Resource Accounting (FRA) ,then Sustainable Forest Certification , by imitating the Criteriae and Indicators and then towards, initiation of sustainable export on local ,regional ,national or international basis (it may be through ‘Stillwell Road’ connecting Locally Kungming of South China through Burma from Assam of India) ;accompanied by proper revenue planning ;with financial courtesy and with CRITERIAE of donor groups / agencies established in, local towards global level ,and their implementation towards local or micro level for SFM .The indicators of such Direct CRITERIAE of donor groups/agencies /establishments etc., for Sustainable Forest Management (With S-TOF-M) are also present and is not clear in my mind till now.
      Regarding Local Criteriae & Indicators :
      (1) Degree and impact (that can be measured by different parameters as livelihood, pollution by insecticides, pesticides, inorganic fertilizers, population etc. of human being ) from surrounding human habitat ,on an area of environmental Secondary Community Succession (Denudation),may also ,probably be a indicator of the FIXED Criterion 1: “Maintenance/increase in the extent of forest and tree cover”, mainly in single study area level ,of secondary succession. Because, in the duration of secondary succession, when first floral community /communities are decreased in number ,in mass, by natural sustainable phenomena (Floral destructive phase of Secondary succession ,but this destruction and regeneration is very systematic with many sub-steps, and there may be some sub-indicators for this),human activities directly or indirectly affect the naturally changing area, (as by chemical fertilizers, insecticides ,pesticides etc.) ,mainly by flood-water flow ,in or about simultaneously of the summer season; from tea-gardens , cultivational , agricultural field , by single individual or from organized sectors, of investment towards lands. Thus, amount of specific fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides , applied in or near an area of an Secondary Succession ,may be Indicator or even Sub-Indicator (Study of some sub-indicators within an Indicator may temporarily be helpful, supportive ,for the study duration),if in details; leading to lessen ,in tree number and also influencing the Criterion 1 : Maintenance/increase in the extent of forest & tree cover, for increase of trees and forests in successive generation .Interdependency (may lead towards Sub-indicators) of one flora on other flora, fauna etc. [as water-hyacinth is noticed with some other florae, which are the feeding, even nesting places of some endangered species of semi-aquatic birds etc. may play major role during destruction and regeneration phases of secondary succession.
      (2)Change of position of NICHE (Mainly of nests) ,of few species of birds, in the same plant or in species of same plant, have also been guessed by me, due to interferences of human community ,pertaining to unsustainability in the area leading towards, decrease in number of florae /Trees/ Shrubs or decrease in number of current leaves, twigs etc. in a single vital plant/tree etc., affecting the current Food-web there.
      *It is essential the preparation of the infrastructure for institutionalization of Criteriae and Indicators concept among the students of Schools/Colleges and so on, as preliminary initiative step, trying for coverage of more districts of Assam (Upper Assam & Lower Assam)and very few extent of Arunachal Pradesh.
      *It is better to exist single office level [Governmental ,non-governmental ,Private ,Limited (Ltd.) etc.] C & I, even up-to branch and sub-branch level, collaborative & pertaining to local community/area, where activities of the particular office , has to be implemented..

      Point =4 :

      Central Board of Excise and Customs may focuses policies and instrumental models etc. towards Directorate General of Valuation (Based on sustainablility standard measurement of raw materials) ,towards Directorate General of Export Promotion etc. for forest certification, through application of Criteria and Indicators System of Sustainable Forest Management as a tool.
      Most of the taxable goods are forest products, including Timber products and Non-Timber products of legally protected (eg. of Reserve Forests etc .) forests and of Tree Outside Forest(TOF) area etc.. Almost all the market goods for consumption by customers are produced from forest resources as timber ,non-timber , ethnobotanical ,ethnozoological, modernized ornamental ,luxurial, house-hold products of different types etc., Which are directly or indirectly collected from biotic components(organic or living form as florae, faunae etc.) or from abiotic components ( inorganic or non-living form as land, water streams ,soil ,rock etc. in natural conditions and arrangements) of legally protected forests and of tree outside forests, technically. We may study, assess and evaluate the sustainability status concentering towards the managerial operations of the concerned Industrial Companies, Limiteds ,Corporations who share, involve ,manage human resources ,in their production strategy for that particular business organization ;at local level .We may measure in a scale system ,how much the producer establishments[ e.g. Indian Company or Foreign Company etc. of a particular country ( in the era of globalization); of and in which country, forest certification has already been partially or adequately implemented or initiated or on the proceedings of initiation’s probability] have followed the protocol ,as the bureau of Indian Standards etc. and so on. The commercial, business and trading establishments that have followed the Forest Certification Criteria concerning C and I of SFM, in alliance of ,and followed by the Forest Stewardship Council’s principles etc. may be proposed for further consultation by concerned Central Ministries ,to promote rebate etc. on different taxation, by the policy instruments of Directorate or Commissionerate of valuation etc. ;as the part of custody in the chaining system. Taxation on local tea gardens may also be summarized in this probable design and model, as a nationally proposed Central Excise and Custom’s Tax Rebatable Forest Certification Initiative ,to inspire the commercial institutions, business groups etc. towards SFM initiatives. It may be a institutionalization attempt of C and I of SFM, F. Certification among industrial sector ,promoting Sustainable Industrialization.
      Shading trees planted in local tea-gardens are shelter, resting and also feeding place of many birds, reptiles etc. of endangered ,rare, threatened species .Tea plants (where chemical pesticides ,insecticides are common ,for efficient production of Tea leaves) shelter, provide environment of their food ,perennially to some endangered species as Funambulus(Squirrel), Herpestes( Mongoose), Manis (Scaly anteater), occasionally Slow loris (Nycticebus coucang) ,Macaca mulatta (Rhesus monkey ), Tiger (Panthera tigris),Leopard (Panthera pardus), Indian garden Lizard (Calotes versicolor), Burmese Python(Python molurus bivittatus) ,Red-necked Keelback (Rhabdophis subminiatus ;near Jokai Reserve Forests), Monocled Cobra (Naja kaouthia), Bengal Vulture (Gyps bengalensis),Adjutant Stork(Leptoptilos dubius), Leptoptilos javanicus,different species of owls etc.. Tigers shelter temporarily in the tea-gardens in search of domestic cattles of nearby revenew areas/villages etc., as food in decreased forest scenario. These facts may be the grassroot levels foundation and tools for assessment and measurements of sustainability status of the T-O-F (Tree outside Forests),for standardization, in context to production (Excise Department) and Transport (Customs Department)taxation rebate. Rebate in taxes or accompanied provisions etc. may be provided by the concerned ministry ,(Ministry of Technical Coordination, e.g. Ministry of Sustainable Forest Management and of Forest Certification, for monitoring the parameters of sustainability etc. , if followed by other Ministries) may be also effective for fund generation for Forest Certification and Sustainable forest Management in India ; in collaboration with the countries where Forest Certification has been already satisfiedly effective ,as for example, Ministry of Refugee is being activated in some other countries, based on necessity.
      Forest certification, may summarize First Party Certification, Second Party Certification ,Third Party Certification ,as the three components of Chain of Custody (CoC), may be more technically authentic in local level.

      Point =5 :

      Application of Constructive Marxism in democratic SFM community:
      Theoretical Marxian Philosophy, applied by Stalin (Stalinism) may be in favor of village (Forest villages and revenue villages) community, and also for semi-rural (with urban impact), semi-urban (with rural Impact) or for urban human community, locally or regionally. On the duration of , J.V. Stalin in Union of Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR), Russia was developing ,rapidly, in economic or other fields; within a very short duration after the Soviet Bolshevik Revolution (Year 1917).
      Principles of Stalinism favored and proceeded towards ,democratism criteria(as in case of administration and sovereignty ,rights and privilege etc.) after the decade of Soviet revolution. Thus system of administration etc. of USSR proceeded towards the politically Nationalistic demarcation of democratism; with the help of Applied Marxian principles, through Stalinism; up to the end of Communist role in the Republic ;through foreign intervention (as by West European Countries; to help the proletariat and by the ,nowadays very common the civil war).The end of the Russian revolutionary administrative consequences was inauguration of political party based, one definite type of democracy.
      Direction of change of global human society presumed from historical study may also be beneficial. It may be better effective to apply and implement the chose principles and theories of constructive democratism favoring Karl Marxian Stalinism [Probably, which contributed in the emergence of Socialism concept (For Socialist party ) ;keeping aside communist ideology (of communist parties) in India after the first congress formation by the year 1885.];mainly in the villagers” society (e.g. forest villages, revenue villages etc.) in the view of forest Management Committees of different objectives in India, mainly in the North-Eastern region ,for successful poverty eradication attempt (With the recognized definition of poor, proletarian and labourer, which are the main voting forces of human social classes in India).Thus the entire revenues from the forests under villagers” ethical ownership may be given to the councils of village/tribal people (With reference to Verrier Elwin”s view);which may be used by the same people for the development of their villages, under monitoring and supervision of the central government. Such arrangement will place much greater responsibility on the council’s ethics and will thus strengthen them ,for an ecologically sustainable economic environment .As they come to realize that ,they are managing their own forests ,it may be an “Ethics Developing Attempt” for sustainable forest management. They may take more care of forests; for nothing creates a stronger sense of responsibility than the possession and control over money (Ref. Verrier Elwin). Such theme may be a tool and attempt for entering into the concept of Ethical (Sustainable)Consumerism. The ethics may be stable or may be changed by immigration of human being .Locally or regionally; ethical consumerism in the direction of Sustainable Forest Ethical Management (SFEM);to achieve Sustainable Ethical Consumerism (SEC),may be viewed through new Sub-Criteriae or indicators/sub-indicators/Co-indicators concepts under the range of Criteriae of Sustainable Forest Management of IIFM-ITTO; also with the concept of Urban Sustainable Ethical Consumerism ,Semi –urban Sustainable Ethical Consumerism ,Semi-rural Sustainable Ethical Consumerism ,Rural Sustainable Ethical Consumerism, mainly on local basis, distinguishing Ethical Concept of forest goods and services consumerism from the concepts of Ethical forest goods and services consumerism. The principles by giving greater authority and dignity to the tribal/village councils, extending their own control over forests; with monitoring of sustainability of their forest by the villagers/tribes through Joint Sustainable Forest Management Committee (J-SFM-C),additionally with Joint Forest Management Committee(JFMC) ;under the shadow of central administration(e.g. Cabinet and so on); with Stalinism concept may be one of the effective tools ,to determine Verification Status (Verifier) for overall well-being of forests (including florae, faunae etc.) and of human community ;within the concept of Sustainable Forest Management by human (mainly villagers) community ,in local or regional scenarios.
      NOW, Principle
      [The fundamental law may be applied form of Karl Marxian principles’ as Stalinism; focusing on farmers/peasants (for all agricultural Sectors)and labourers (including each field or sector of economical society and humanity concerned society)]

      In my general outlook, Criterion 1 (Maintenance/increase in the extent of forest and tree cover) proceeds and views towards natural virgin forests and its indicators, as 1.1,1.2,1.3,1.4, (e.g. 1.2 Percentage of forest with secured boundaries of IIFM-ITTO) indicates ,the consequences of resultant human activities ;in the direction of engulfing Sustainability of natural status of forests.
      Regarding Agroforestry:
      Implementation of Agroforestry plan ;in surrounding or near by forest area, may assimilate with near by natural forest area; through a natural phenomena (e.g. by wind pollination or by other Vectors) or such agroforestry or plantation by human being (for restoration attempt of florae or plant species with conservational and enhancement attempt of faunae ,by providing shelter place or nesting place or food or niche habitat etc. for them in the plantation area) may be required through ecological and environmental demand locally. It may be possible to assess sustainability of such summation of natural forest and man-made plantation and agro-forest , through sub-indicator concept; which can be included within the range of a particular indicator or co-assist a indicator,”1.4 Change in the tree cover outside forest area.”
      Globally accepted definition of Sustainable Development is, ”Development that meets the needs of present generations without Compromising the ability of future generations; to meet their own needs.”
      Thus the fact may also be that extraction of different types of forest resources (as timber, non-wood forest products etc.);from a natural virgin forest “to meet the needs of present generations” is possible up to conversion of the natural forest land (with aquatic, moist land etc.) towards bare land or to bare land; through a stepwise human needs. Subsequent agroforestry planting and implementation ,in that particular bare land may compromise the “Ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. Agroforestry that can also be in the direction of compensating/fulfilling of human needs, may also favor Criterion 1.Maintenance/INCREASE in the extent of forest and tree cover; for the future generations or for the generations of successive centuries. Sustainable Forest Management (SFM), as undeniable part of Sustainable Development; can contribute ,in this prospects ,through indicatoral view.

      Change in forest cover in the direction of :

      Dense Forest -> Open Forest -> Scrub Forest -> Pasture Forest -> Desert Forest ;
      favoring Secondary Succession may be also (e.g. as conversion of land forests to the form of water streams) ;decrease in forest and tree cover by Secondary Succession and so on ,may also be an indicator for Sustainable Forest Management.

      Foundational Concept of sustainable forest management may better to be based on natural phenomena,as food-chain,food-web etc. ,accompanied by human need based.

    3. Rupam Kumar Gogoi says:

      Point=5 :

      Sustainable forest management (SFM) may be considered as first initiative
      ; former to sustainable socio-economic development; to become successful in
      perennial global issues as “sustainable development”. If sustainable forest
      management (SFM) becomes effective ( but ,it seems better to manage sustainably
      the trees, shrubs etc. outside legally protected forest areas also, as in rural
      home boundaries, in the alluvium etc., which also have huge contribution to
      environmental well-beings, towards man-made sustainability) , then
      conservation, maintenance and even enhancement of biodiversity and
      abiodiversity also will occur spontaneously, which are important for sustainable socio-economic development.

      Measurement of majority of sustainability, with short
      periodicity will help more to post-measurement planning and implementation
      locally, effectively to former assessment of sustainability ; in the direction
      of sustainable socio-economic development, which is biotic. In North-Eastern
      Region, it may be possible to look-out the natural or man-made factors, which
      helps to measure future local sustainability in a very small area in comparison
      to global environmental area. The factors may be locally placed into biotic
      factors (found out in a human impacted area of protected forests and in
      unprotected residential forests etc.) and abiotic factors ( factors found in
      virgin forests, almost free from impact of human-beings) within the range of
      biotic criteria and abiotic criteria.

      In this area, locally
      it may be possible to find –out the
      biotic indicators, which will indicate a effectiveness of a criteria ,for
      those indicators to be decided or
      determined and also to find out the abiotic indicators without the theme of
      pests, diseases , weeds etc. regarding
      the modern human-beings ; since these themes were not considered by a
      sustainable ancient primitive forest. Forest diseases ,weeds etc. may also
      be the parts of natural
      sustainable food-web, in a destructive succession, as denudation.

      The biotic indicators may be viewed-up with human recognised media( as
      deforestation, grazing etc.)

      It should be
      attempted towards meeting or overcoming the collaborative challenges, in case
      of bio-energy resources , FRA etc. by U.S.A. or near by collaborative
      organizations and countries of European
      Unions ; towards South –East Asia or other developing or African countries
      etc., some of which area may include the tropical forests; and that may be a
      part of global sustainability.

      In regional context, a deserted road (Stillwell Road, named in memory of
      Major General Joseph Warren Stillwell ;during second world war ,of the length
      about 1726 Kilometer to Kungming of South China) is being reconstructed from
      Assam to China through Burma,mainly for trading purpose. It is better to
      concentre on the environmental
      sustainability in this Bio-diversity hot-spot with such developmental
      perspectives.A few traditional economic cultures are going on ,still ,in this
      area. Some raw –materials are transferred towards the other parts of the
      country, for final production, marketing etc.. Trading of local sustainable raw materials through
      Stillwell Pathway towards south-east Asia, due to facilitation of open and free
      globalised marketing and trading, may influence local level sustainable economic developmental attempt, directly with
      international level approaches, in future ; covering local or regional
      aggregate sustainable economic and socio-economic development ,or on overall
      economy of North-East region, with domestic industrial product deterioration
      too.

    4. Rupam Kumar Gogoi says:

      Point=6:

      Effectiveness of ongoing C & I:

      There may be some measures and
      procedures, to increase the effectiveness of C & I of SFM and S-TOF-M. Measures may be the
      primary broad-view; through which different procedures may be forwarded, based
      on suitability ; i.e. within a single type of measure, there may be different
      parallel procedures , to increase the effectiveness of C & I implementation. By successful implementation
      and application of principles of C &
      I , it

      may be possible into enter
      into the concept of sustainable village, town or city formation , or possible
      to give the shape of an ideal
      sustainable village, sustainable town or city ; in the unsustainable areas
      with anti or not-favoring environmental
      activities. C & I should be deeply measured and assessed,as a tool of EIA
      (Environmental Impact Assessment ), in local, regional, national level
      etc. Dissimilar C
      & I among local levels (which are not found in regional level or in national
      level or even in international level) is
      better to compare , analyze and evaluate among themselves , to distinguish
      forest specificity; for making C& I
      assessment, more effective, in such different context or level. Proper policy, techniques
      and principles are better to determine ;to make the pathway of C & I
      effective in organized and unorganized industrial sector and society, organized
      (as self-help group

      etc.) and unorganized (as
      farmer’s productivity etc.) economic productivity sector and society, or in the
      sector and society of intermediate
      products’ industry etc. ; with a
      path-way free from , complex democratic
      socio-political aspects of land and activity [ Impact of constituency ( central
      and state ) , Local, Traditional, or immigrational human population numbers
      etc.] It may be better to ,increase the
      effectiveness of C & I , attempt in international level, in re-construction
      and formation ; through an agreement among the participating countries (Perhaps
      up to ITTO level) ,by following-up the conditions , leaded by C & I system
      , in case of as was Afghanistan reconstruction , with any types of initiative
      (industrial or other economic sector etc.) of the countries , in the range
      of globalisation or in other trends of interests of international communities.
      It may be global initiative of any country , in case of C & I , in

      sustainable reconstruction, urbanization, or
      in industrialization effort in country
      level etc. To determine the
      intra-industrial C & I , intra-industrial technology should be studied and observed in this area.
      After that , technological activities , not favorable to the environmental sustainability have to be listed and thus C
      & I ,in industrial level , in different industry types ,have to be
      determined, to consult and suggest , for changed or modified techniques and methodology to be applied, to
      increase the effectiveness of C & I , in industries, as a part of sustainable industrialization.

    5. Rupam Kumar Gogoi says:

      Sir,Ambiguous Forest Vitality may be assessed,evaluated by using the distinct ,clear remaining Indicators of SFM.I shall be happy to get further guideline,basically on Statistical point of view,since I have very low ,clear concept on Such statistical review………….Regards Rupam

    6. Rupam Kumar Gogoi says:

      The Ecological Indicators may be better to be supported and forwarded by following indicators in order to view a summation Environmentally Sustainable Landscape Mosaic-Matrix :

      #### Economic Indicators pertaining to Global Marxian Industrial Economical Classes of People ;

      #### Service Sector Indicators in Governmental , Non-Governmental , Private ,Public and in Quasi-public fields perspectives ;

      #### Political Indicators including Sovereignty and Refugee and Boundary Demarcation Issues

      #### Theological indicators pertaining to Sacred Grooves accompanied by religious alterations from pristinity due to spontaneous cultural liberalizations under globalization scheme/project.

      #### Ethnic Indicators specifically in Dialect prone sub-group regions ;

      #### Traditional Indicators that indicates patterns of generation-wise social infrastructural changes in urban, semi-urban,semi-rural,rural, in different grade of slum areas ;

      #### Cultural Indicators that measure sociological recreational changes amongst different groups of race ,caste, tribes(immigrational and indigenous ) and religious people ;

      ****** Proper and accurate measurement of these indicators may view the status of morality of all categories of people in a Society to favour Community Forest Management to patronize Global Sustainable Forest Management.

    7. Rupam Kumar Gogoi says:

      The Ecological Indicators may be better to be upholded and advanced by following indicators in order to view a summing-up Environmentally Sustainable Landscape Mosaic-Matrix :

      #### Economic Indicators pertaining to Global Marxian Industrial Economical Classes of People ;

      #### Service Sector Indicators in Governmental , Non-Governmental , Private ,Public and in Quasi-public fields perspectives ;

      #### Political Indicators including Sovereignty and Refugee and Boundary Demarcation Issues

      #### Theological indicators pertaining to Sacred Grooves accompanied by theological alterations from pristinity in religion due to spontaneous cultural liberalizations under globalization scheme/project.

      #### Ethnic Indicators specifically in Dialect effective sub-group regions ;

      #### Traditional Indicators that indicates patterns of generation-wise social infrastructural changes in urban, semi-urban,semi-rural,rural, in different grade of slum areas ;

      #### Cultural Indicators that measure sociological recreational changes amongst different groups of race ,caste, tribes(immigrational and indigenous ) and religious people ;

      ****** Proper and accurate measurement of these indicators may view the status of morality of all categories of people in a Society to favour Community Forest Management to patronize Global Sustainable Forest Management.

    8. Rupam Kumar Gogoi says:

      Global Anthropocentric or Utilitarian Perspectives of Economic Criteriaea and Indicators for Sustainable Forest Management are based on the global challenges of still to be fenced by United Nations ; specially in view of Community Participation for Sustainable Forest Management, as s tool in case of poverty rich human societies accompanied by Environmentally sustainable livelihood generating processes.

      Amendment in Governmental administrations ,through constitutional imitation from most successful country or countries ,sovereign ,semi-sovereign states may be beneficial as one of the global reviews.

    9. Rupam Kumar Gogoi says:

      As for instances,in case of Oil Palm Plantation Landscape Development Scenario, it may be preferable to attempt to fulfil the economic desires, to provide with indigenous cultural recreation , provide with or prepare applied educational curriculum as wished by each family,household in individual basis or in aggregate ; among the remote villagers in order to enhance the possession on community sensitization and community collaboration for attaining cifor strategy. Contemporarily , diplomatic international approaches towards ruling governmental party or parties and towards oppositional groups in a country/territory are helpful as an opportunity for political aspects of globalization.
      >
      > Co-operation and Collaboration with ruling party/parties ,oppositional group/s, local people may be an inception for administrational management on behalf of a territory,country ; Semi-sovereign ,suzerain-vassal territotries and so on as an attempt for Global Community Management as a component of Global Sustainable Forest Management.

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