Economic criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management

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Managing forests sustainably involves ecology, social aspects, and economics. A recent CIFOR paper by Jack Ruitenbeek and Cynthia Cartier called ’Rational Exploitations: Economic Criteria and Indicators for Sustainable Management of Tropical Forests’ discusses the latter aspect.

The paper’s five main lessons are:

* Look beyond simple efficiency to consider equity and sustainability.

* Keep your focus on the stand of trees, but don’t forget the policies and institutions that affect the stand.

* Pay as much attention to stocks and assets as to flows and income.

* Be prepared for surprises and exercize precaution in forest management.

* Keep the criteria and indicators simple to permit an easy assessment of trade-offs.

The paper provides a list of recommended criteria and indicators and a list of indicators that should be avoided, as well as an evaluation of the economic criteria and indicators recommended by the International Tropical Timber Organization, the African Timber Organization, the Amazon Cooperation Treaty countries, the German Initiative on Tropical Forests, the UK Soil Association, the Rainforest Alliance, and the Indonesian Ecolabeling Institute.

The paper suggests that manager and certifiers avoid the use of indicators such as internal rates of return, economic valuations of ecological services, and complex indices of wealth and income distribution. The authors’ own proposed set of economic criteria and indicators include four basic principles, twelve criteria that can help operationalize those principles, and forty specific indicators that help assess whether the criteria are being met.

 

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Further reading

If you would like to comment on this message, please write to Jack Ruitenbeek at mailto:hjruiten@web.net

To obtain a copy of the paper, write to Ravi Prabhu at mailto:r.prabhu@cgiar.org When you request the paper, let us know if we can send it to you electronically in PDF format and, if not, what alternative might be best for you.

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5 responses to “Economic criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management”

  1. Rupam Kumar Gogoi says:

    Primarily in community
    participation for SFM ,which is very common locally ,through leadership .In
    case of local community participation for SFM , usually one single individual
    or groups of individuals come-out ,from a social group, [Excluding local
    club, self-help group, youth organization etc. also,mainly in villages, (Villages
    within legally protected forests and villages with Trees Outside Forest ,the TOF) ]. By social group, I
    mean few neighbors of same type of
    social attitudes in homely / household affairs, with same type of
    thinking pattern and thinking level, in the village areas .

    Like mental state of
    wild-life (faunae), human being also have a CRITICAL period in
    their growing age. During this period or age, immature inner mind of people,
    desire to learn from anything or any theme “Surrounding” them, including formal or informal education also. The
    “Surrounding” may be schools, colleges, other educational institutions etc. or
    the learning from the people, whom he meets or faces, frequently in his daily
    life- pattern. In this prospects ,Indian
    social human community almost learn about or develop the agitational or revolutionary
    enthusiastic thinking ,which
    characteristic and quality has been passing via thoughts of Indian community
    ;one generation after another generation, from the year of independence (1947) or since the year of
    recognition of democracy (1950)
    , of India , thus ,emergence of social
    leadership quality, in social sector (Political, non-political, literary,
    cultural, traditional field etc.) are very logical and very familiar for
    our country .It may be better to think, on this prospects also ;in the duration
    of :-

    Community SFM Processing:-

    (1) Initiation : Followed byà

    (2) Continuation:
    Simultaneously or Followed by
    à

    (3) Management, according to necessity,

    till ending of the
    consequences ,as a part of Community Participation ;towards sustainability of
    protected forests and towards sustainability of
    Tree Outside Forest.
    Sustainability may be in the direction of more fruitful; if proper conservation, uniform maintenance,
    or necessary enhancement of vulnerable ,endangered, rare, threatened species
    etc. of florae and faunae are undertaken. These three measures together, or any
    two measures together, or any single one or judicious mixture of these three or
    two measures may be effective, to maintain sustainability. In this way, to
    formulate policy and principles of community participation, historical analysis
    may be effective to few extents; in the Nationalistic division (e.g.
    formation of countries etc.) or unification of the countries towards
    continents of the globe. It is necessary to view on conceptual historical
    infrastructural and economic
    infrastructural history of Country formation (as Indian origin of
    Mauritius), of the globe, status of the opposition parties of different
    countries ,electional configurations and
    infrastructures mainly of European Countries (as of union) etc.
    and of African countries; based on sensitization factors to unify the different
    oppositional or administrational (as Governments) parties of the
    other countries, towards India, with reference as intermediate position of
    India, in the globe. These factors may help to enhance global status of our country ; as like the, religious belief
    and faith were the base of formation of Pakistan and East Pakistan (Bangladesh,
    at Present).Sir, then, what might be the concept of MIDDLE Pakistan
    ,before the year 1947 or 1950 or for the
    presents’ B(Bangladesh).N.P.? Still, there may be a
    internationalist relationships between these two above mentioned countries.

    In Context to Local Community
    Participation:-

    Study of food-webs or
    food-chains or mixture of food-webs of different types and its sustainability,
    maintenance, through monitoring and evaluation by the local communities (through
    guidance and direction of proper authority, individuals) may forward
    towards sufficiently fruitful community participation for S-F-M and for
    S-TOF-M, in regional or local aspects. Senior communities (as rural
    parents, guardians etc.) may be sensitized or inspired for such type of
    activities, by providing free supportive general education ;to their
    children or to the interested ,but
    depressed uneducated youths (male and female) ,following their
    school curriculum/syllabus and required educational interests
    respectively (Educational Community Participation for SFM). With
    supportive general education (at certain intervals of few days, in a
    week);it is also possible to offer knowledge on food-webs,
    anti-environmental communities phenomena etc.(it may be towards virginity concept of forests)to
    attempt for sustainability of
    biodiversity and abio-diversity as
    portions of Forest Management Practices
    ,in regional aspects.

    Offering free supportive
    general education (e.g. to village children / youth etc.)
    may be or almost is the best, simple & clear path; for community sensitization ,of community
    sustainability. Parallely, it may also be possible to know about local economic values of the forest (through
    Holistic approach),trees ,plants,
    shrubs, etc. ;which are maintained by definite household / families etc.
    to proceed towards Forest Resource Accounting (FRA) ,then
    Sustainable Forest Certification , by imitating the Criteriae and Indicators
    and then towards, initiation of sustainable export on local ,regional ,national or
    international basis (it may be through ‘Stillwell Road’ connecting Locally Kungming of
    South China through Burma from Assam of India) ;accompanied by
    proper revenue planning ;with financial courtesy and with
    CRITERIAE of donor groups / agencies established in, local towards
    global level ,and their implementation towards local or micro level for SFM
    .The indicators of such Direct CRITERIAE of donor groups/agencies
    /establishments etc., for
    Sustainable Forest Management (With S-TOF-M) are also present and is not clear in my mind till now.

    Regarding Local Criteriae & Indicators :

    (1) Degree and impact (that can be measured by
    different parameters as livelihood, pollution by insecticides, pesticides, inorganic fertilizers, population
    etc. of human being ) from
    surrounding human habitat ,on an area of
    environmental Secondary Community Succession (Denudation),may
    also ,probably be a indicator of the FIXED
    Criterion 1: “Maintenance/increase in the extent of forest and tree
    cover”, mainly in single study area level ,of secondary succession.
    Because, in the duration of secondary succession, when first floral community
    /communities are decreased in number ,in
    mass, by natural sustainable phenomena (Floral destructive phase of Secondary succession ,but this destruction
    and regeneration is very systematic with many sub-steps, and there may be some
    sub-indicators for this),human activities directly or indirectly affect the naturally changing area, (as
    by chemical fertilizers, insecticides ,pesticides etc.) ,mainly by
    flood-water flow ,in or about simultaneously of the summer season; from
    tea-gardens , cultivational , agricultural field , by single individual or from
    organized sectors, of investment towards
    lands. Thus, amount of specific fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides , applied
    in or near an area of an Secondary
    Succession ,may be Indicator or even Sub-Indicator (Study of some
    sub-indicators within an Indicator may temporarily be helpful, supportive ,for
    the study duration),if in details; leading to lessen ,in tree number and
    also influencing the Criterion 1 : Maintenance/increase in the extent of
    forest & tree cover, for increase
    of trees and forests in successive generation .Interdependency (may
    lead towards Sub-indicators) of one flora on other flora, fauna etc. [as
    water-hyacinth is noticed with some other florae, which are the feeding, even
    nesting places of some endangered species of
    semi-aquatic birds etc.(the photograph of such habitat was
    sent in my power point opinion, about C
    & I ,of Management Development Programme, from 18-th to 21-st November,2008
    in Bhopal)] may play major role during destruction and regeneration
    phases of secondary succession.

    (2)Change of position of NICHE (Mainly of nests)
    ,of few species of birds, in the same plant or
    in species of same plant, have also been guessed by me, due to interferences of human community ,pertaining to unsustainability in
    the area leading towards, decrease in number of florae /Trees/ Shrubs or decrease in number of current leaves,
    twigs etc. in a single vital plant/tree etc., affecting the current
    Food-web there.

    *It is better to exist
    single office level [Governmental
    ,non-governmental ,Private ,Limited (Ltd.) etc.] C & I, even up-to branch and
    sub-branch level, collaborative & pertaining to local community/area,
    where activities of the particular office , has to be implemented.

    Rupam Kumar Gogoi,

    Milan Nagar,E-Lane,

    M.N. Road ,P.O.C. R .Building,

    Dist :Dibrugarh,

    State :Assam

    Country: India

    M:+91-9706646150

  2. Rupam Kumar Gogoi says:

    Point=1 :

    ”’Different types of Articles/imaginary hypothetical practical stories may be written summarizing all the imaginary possible views of all the Criteriae & Indicators system of Sustainable Forest Management ,for single Forest accompanied by Forest Dependent and Independent Communities.’
    All the indicators may be summarized to view a single Sustainably Managed Forest Villages, with reference to the C & I System.
    The Indicators may be divided in my look-out as :(1)Conservation Indicator,(2)Maintenance Indicator,(3)Enhancement Indicator,(4 )
    Natural resource Indicator,(5)Secondary Succession Indicator or Denudation Indicator,(6)Treated Forest Area Indicator,(7)Ethnic Indicator,(8)Jurisdictional Indicator,(9)Non-Destructive Harvesting Indicator,(10)Non-Destructive Recorded Removal Indicator,(11)Non-Destructive Demand Indicator,(12)Non-Destructive Supply Indicator,
    (13)Non-Destructive Export Indicator,(14)Non-Destructive Import Indicator,(15)Financial Indicator,(16)Survey Indicator,(17)Administrational Indicator……
    Each of these indicators may be divided in to different types of study topics/categories.Perhaps ,all these 17 numbers of indicators may be arranged in above mentioned seriality or sequence ,to get an Ideal Sustainably Managed Forest Village. These Indicators are applicable for India ,primarily.On addition to economic criteriae and indicators ; florae and faunae specific criteriae and indicators;focusing upon endangered,rare,threatened,vulnerable species etc. also may be effective…

    Point=2:

    The following may be a subjective tool to view the global human habitat field for focusing on C and I for SFM study :

    It may be necessary the discussion and exchange of
    knowledges on Conceptual and fundamental Initiative in
    local level or in single individual level; for analysis
    ,evaluation ,assesment of schematic strategies of
    different country governments ;e.g. country with a single
    or few states; country with many states accompanied by
    democratic, republic, socialistic ,federal capitalistic or
    mixed capitalistic governmental infrastructure ; within
    the purview of administrational officials and electionally
    nominated parties; viewing globally and internationally,
    the implicit and explicit aims, objectives and strategies
    of Various types of World Summit; primarily insisting
    upon Sustainable Development. Discussion on
    Sustainable Forest Resource Certification, Forest
    Resource Accounting and Valuation in internationally
    effective influensive currencies; in comparison to gold,
    oils and so on ;viewing towards different country unions
    and global unions, high incomes” Northern Countries,
    Countries of Middle East Countries ,Oriental countries of
    the globe and so on, is expected ,initially .
    I am hereby
    going to present my nominal views on Community
    Forest Management, as I am basically pertaining to
    Community Forest Management interests with wildlife
    affinities entity, for IIFM-ITTO. These include
    some my opinions, on Local
    environmental impact’s issues, with reference to my
    native town/district or to few extent to North-East
    regional aspects.
    My primary views on local/ North –East
    Regional aspects of the country:
    Comparative study of Criteriae & Indicators of IIFMITTO(
    International Tropical Timber Organization) are still
    being followed by the sustainable traditional tribes, or
    necessary to be followed by rural ,semi-rural or urban
    areas ,in the North–East India with maintenance of
    environmental sustainability. It may be possible to
    attempt to give Environmental sustainability; to the
    framework, as SFM (Sustainable Forest Management)
    and STOFM (Sustainable Tree Outside Forest
    Management) with the guidelines of IIFM-ITTO
    references, at local or regional level, at first and
    primarily. The impact of globalized factors on the
    traditional cultures ,in North-East India(in local or
    regional impact), may be a tool for partially, globally
    impacted sustainable revenue increment methodology
    innovations, which appears to be one of the significant
    explicit interests and affinity, for Western
    travelers(tourists) of mainly the developed countries
    ,with their arrival towards North-East India. In North-East
    India, all the sustainable traditional cultures are not
    ,presently completely sustainable to the surrounding
    environment(Although it is globally accepted that ALL
    TRADITIOAL CULTURES ARE SUSTAINABLE) .The
    traditional Ethno-biological uses of different parts of
    wild florae and of wild faunae ,including presently
    declared endangered species, vulnerable species ,rare
    species, threatened species etc. [ as claw of tiger
    (Panthera tigris),Skin of deers , roots or other parts of
    some endangered orchids or of other parts of almost all
    endangered, rare, vulnerable, threatened florae and
    faunae as mentioned in Red Data Book of International
    Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural
    Resources(IUCN) etc. ] are not sustainable at present
    duration in Assam , Arunachal Pradesh or over all in
    North-East India. Sustained Yield Forestry or yield
    through investment of labors and services towards native
    land ,is better to be under the policy capacity of
    Indigenous farmers or indigenous proletarians, than
    higher economic class of people, bureaucrats etc., which
    should be accompanied by sustainable certification of
    renewable with valuation based on environmental
    friendliness, in the activities on renewable and nonrenewable
    solid(e.g. growing stock of wood), liquid(e.g.
    water) and gaseous goods(e.g. air) and concerned
    services on forest resources .Because, in North-East India
    ,for environmentally sustainable tribal peoples (plains
    and hills) ;the forest was for him; in ethical point of
    view,[as by Verrier Elwin (Ref. A Philosophy for
    NEFA/North –East Frontier Agency)].But due to, issues
    like unsustainable livelihood, lack of managerial
    autonomy of tribal indigenous people etc. on native
    land, also has influenced this traditional ethics, in most of
    the legally protected forest & TOF area. Biodiversity
    conservation, maintenance and enhancement, as a part
    of Sustainable Forest Management has various aspects at
    local or regional level.
    Taxation etc. as the tools for Sustainable
    Industrialization, policy at local/regional level
    for the global policy instrument the “
    Sustainable development” :
    It may also be better to be taken into consideration ,the
    Criteriae and Indicators concerned facts of Sustainable
    Forest Management ,in the purview of Tea-forest
    Resource Accounting and Valuation(Taxation/Revenue),
    in Natural Gas Cracking Technology(Presently under
    Construction Gas Cracker, in Dibrugarh)with its human
    benefited component products, Oil Extracting-Refining-
    Limiteds/Commissions (e.g. O.I.L.; O.N.G.C.;N.R.L. etc.)
    through IIFM-ITTO guidelines etc., as a tool to evaluate
    Sustainable Revenue Increment Policy, as an attempt
    for institutionalization of Criteriae and Indicators
    Concept in these eastablishments,under the guidance of
    IIFM-ITTO.
    As in tea-garden industries ,excluding uses of pesticides
    ,insecticides ;which are still to be sustainability favoring
    ,but tea plants with shade providing trees ,in urban or
    rural areas, provide nesting, sheltering fooding habitats
    for many endangered ,rare, threatened birds ,reptiles
    ,insects species etc. also with invertebrate organisms and
    also contribute in environmental balance of Carbon
    dioxide gas ,in the area, to a higher extent as compared
    to other types of industries in the area, with traditional
    tea-gardens communities, immigrated by the Mandate
    of British Empire, before Independence(year 1947). It
    may be possible to view-up such man –made industrial
    cultivation/plantation, under the Taxation-revenue
    rebate scenario, with sustainable but hidden tea-garden
    communitys’ cultures. The immigrated traditional
    cultures of Tea-garden communities are still being
    Sustainable to the local environment.
    Since, farming/plantation of industrial and economic
    plants, which undergoes C-4 Pathways(Hatch-Slack
    Pathway) of Dark Reaction of Photosynthesis, have no
    inhibitory effect of oxygen, can adjust to high Carbon
    dioxide concentration ,Higher rate of photosynthesis, low
    level of Photo-respiration with maximum utilization of
    Carbon dioxide and less uses of oxygen, can adjust to
    high carbon dioxide concentration and Carbon dioxide
    absorption in comparison to the Plants of C-3,C-2
    photosynthetic pathways’ plants, in the area ,therefore,
    to favor sustainable Tree Outside Forest management
    and Sustainable Industrialization ; the economic or
    industrial plantation of local C-4 plants as Maize (Zea
    mays L.) Sugar-cane(Saccharum officinarum L.) may be
    previewed into Environment friendly Sustainable
    Industrialization Scenario,as Indian initiatives ,in order to
    patronize Sustainable Industrial Community Forest
    Management and Conservation with rebate in Taxes ,in
    order to patronize it at local or regional level or at single
    individual level. Tax rebate may be compensated, by
    means of ,increasing tax-customs quantum through
    imposing additional money value on industries,
    establishments with unsustainable production of raw
    materials from legally protected but forest area of
    permitted felling and from Natural resources extraction
    establishments, in revenue providing area’s of human
    community. Taxation may be imposed on intermediate
    products also, initiating from the range of Environmental
    or Earth-crust related raw materials; up to the status of
    final/last stage products for marketing, on their
    transportation in intra-country or inter –country level.
    Beside earth-crust productive sectors, Sustainable Tax-
    Custom-Revenue generation and increment concept
    may be implemented in developmental activity sectors,
    service sectors etc. in the society ,to favor all kinds of
    social activities of human being (Industrial ,Quasi-public
    and public activity, Corporate activity ,economic
    developmental perspective, governmental & nongovernmental
    ,private activity and so on) for to attempt
    for Bio-diversity Conservation in the already destructed
    Virgin Globe . For this purpose, it is better to add
    community infrastructural concept, with Marxian Class
    Analysis in Multi –electional Groups’ Democratic
    Administrative Indian System, for almost successful
    implementation in social field (Family, household, local
    club, panchayat etc.).
    Natural earthy virgin environmental biodiversity is better
    to be favored by people entangled with Ethno biological
    Human society. The North –Eastern Region of India is rich
    in Ethno biological cultures, which may be compared, in
    resemblance/similarity, in ethical and ethnical point of
    view, with the some of the countries of South-East Asia.
    Definition of ethnobiology may comprise the following
    issues as componental parts for various human
    conventional community sectors , which can be
    dynamically viewed as :
    (1)Cultural (in art ,literature or other indigenous
    intellectual expressions of different upper and lower
    economic classes of people)
    (2)Religious (Pertaining to worshipping gods and God
    ,as Wild-life are worshipped by some people locally
    ,since they are also considered as the companions of
    Gods ,by some ethnical forest villagers locally)
    (3)Social (a family or household entangled with
    ethno biology as a smallest structure of the society)
    (4)Traditional (The passing beliefs or customs, locally
    from one generation to next
    generation)
    (5)Ethical (Moral principles of rules of behavior
    towards ethno biology)
    (6)Ethnical (Race or tribe prospects, that have a
    common cultural tradition)
    (7)Medicinal (For the benefit of forest villager
    community as well as domestic animals)
    In my Community Forest Management Concept, the
    human community habitat’s infra-structure may be
    summarized as:
    (1) Urban area,
    (2)Semi-urban area (where urban impact is dominant,)
    (3)Semi-rural area (where rural impact is dominant),
    and
    (4)Rural area
    (5)Unstable and Sensitive Alluvial Area
    (6) Forest Villages in Reserve Forest and Forest Villages,
    in Bio-sphere Reserve and so on.
    Slum area may be or is distinct in above mentioned, first
    five numbers of human dominant Earth-Crust.
    Preparation of schemes based on economic
    developmental objectives, following C and I of IIFM-ITTO,
    for the slum area people, by respective authority
    may be one of the basic instruments for poverty
    alleviation and eradication attempt, as a part of
    sustainable urbanization and also as an additional source
    of Domestic Revenue Regeneration and Sustainable
    Industrialization in community level.
    From these points of view, Revenue, Customs and Excise
    concept may be added to the overall of Concept of
    Revenue( following US concept) for money value
    increment methodology at national level in political
    nationalistic demarcation .
    The alluvial area locally, in the bank of the river
    Brahmaputra may be included under the area of Primary
    Natural Ecological Succession, where seeds etc. of
    fruiting or other types of economic plants mainly comes
    by the river current by Avian semi-aquatic species,
    resulting natural economic and ecological plantations in
    the area. Such areas of Primary succession or the areas of
    Secondary Succession etc. with human economic
    productivities etc. may be previewed under
    Environmental-Succession-Revenue-Taxation-Customs
    scenario, as part of Community Protected Tree Outside
    Forest. Tax-Customs financial rebate may also be
    possible in the Production sectors, where species of
    endangered, rare, threatened, vulnerable species of
    florae and faunae is presently pre-dominant. It might
    inspire Industrial communities, as a tool for Industrial
    Community Forest Management to favor Biodiversity
    Conservation.
    All these topics may be innovative study topic, in Socio-administrational
    Institutional Capacity(to apply and
    benefit within Sustainable Forest Managemental and
    Bio-diversity Conservational aspects)Building Initiatives
    .The topic may also help to initiate for finding out
    mandatory principles and C and I to be implemented by
    the official department or departments .
    ——————————————————————–
    ——–
    Contribution in goods and services ,in sensitization and
    viewing environmental conservational and
    managemental objectives and goals in technical
    formality ,may be possible with the consultation of
    some Nationally or Internationally recognized forest
    management institutes and with concerned resource
    persons, globally giving proportional importance in a
    holistic approach to ethical, changed ethnical ,cultural
    and traditional aspects etc. from biological, Human
    sociological ,educational or other academicals scenario.
    Bio-diversity conservational fundamental concept may
    be added to technical pathways of administrational
    attempt with indirect constructive departmental
    contributions, in the environment and nature.
    It might be possible to come-out ,with the goal and
    objective of Bio-diversity conservation, with Zoo-ethical
    feelings, with the wishes of free education to poors and
    proletarians of Rural India and with Zoo-biological
    feelings ,towards global perspectives, with the impact of
    concept of Sustainable Forest Resource Accounting and
    Valuation methodology in the Policy and protocols of
    Taxation(Production) and Customs(Transportation) and
    in Revenue(Money generation), as Sustainable Industrial
    Socio-economic Development ,to favor for a proposed
    Global Council of Scientific and Sustainable Industrial
    Research(GCSSIR) ,with the explicit and implicit policies
    of IMF,WTO,WB and so on, by means of Sustainable
    Forest Resource Certification .It may be mandatory to
    expand,the
    concept of Criteriae and Indicators of Sustainable Forest
    Management, Sustainable Forest Certification, Forest
    Resource Accounting and Valuation in a country in their
    own currency and then conservation it to dollar or to any
    other its contradictory currency/currencies with
    reference to the aim of its international trades ,e .g.
    through Present East-West Corridor , within the range of
    Global Middle East Countries, that might be
    mandatorily managed ; in purview of ,consideration of
    the country ,to which I am being ,as the trade centre for
    South-East Asia and South-West Asia or in regional
    aspects, through the Still-Well Road,( named in memory
    of Major General Joseph Warren Stillwell ;during second
    world war )of the length about 1726 Kilometer to
    Kungming of South China ,from Assam state ,is being
    repaired and reschemed from Assam state to China
    through Burma, mainly for trading purpose .There may
    be imaginary view for attempting India, to restructure as
    the Image of South Asian world trade centre, through the
    under-construction of East-West Corridor; in order to
    meet the policy challenges, collaboratively and
    cooperatively, of implicit and explicit aims and
    objectives its donor international establishments ;that
    corridor has been being under-construction, through
    country India .It might be considered, to restructure, in
    the view of Sustainable Trading ;as a tool of Sustainable
    Industrializations, to favor Global Sustainable
    Development, in regional context. Among the explicit
    and implicit, international policy network, in the purview
    of open ,primarily economic liberalization and
    secondarily cultural globalization ethics and philosophy,
    it might be also possible to focus on Environmentally
    Sustainable Country formation ,by the internationally
    more skilled countries/more skilled financial
    establishments, institutions etc., for the development
    and economic differentiation of third world
    ,underdeveloped countries, that are that are
    economically poor, but most of which are still rich, bioresource
    concerned facts or in wildlife, in general
    accompanied by the fundamental aim of
    Environmentally Sustainable GREEN COUNTRY
    FORMATION. There may be the possibility for the third
    world countries, in such aspects.
    The aim of our comparative study might be in the
    direction of fulfilling the achievements of Various types
    of World Summits (e.g. WSSD)in single individual level or
    at grass-root level, as poverty eradication attempt etc.
    ,or the protocols ,principles, agenda etc. of different
    international and global institutions/establishments(e.g.
    IMF, WTO,WB,ADB etc.) that may be purviewed ,in my
    nominal global views.

    Point =3 :

    Primarily I have mentioned my only opinion ,on community participation for SFM ,which is very common locally ,through leadership .In case of local community participation for SFM , usually one single individual or groups of individuals come-out ,from a social group, [Excluding local club, self-help group, youth organization etc. also,mainly in villages, (Villages within legally protected forests and villages with Trees Outside Forest ,the TOF) ]. Social group, means few neighbors of same type of social attitudes in homely / household affairs, with same type of thinking pattern and thinking level, in the village areas .

    Like mental state of wild-life (faunae), human being also have a CRITICAL period in their growing age. During this period or age, immature inner mind of people, desire to learn from anything or any theme “Surrounding” them, including formal or informal education also. The “Surrounding” may be schools, colleges, other educational institutions etc. or the learning from the people, whom he meets or faces, frequently in his daily life- pattern. In this prospects ,Indian social human community almost learn about or develop the agitational or revolutionary enthusiastic thinking ,which characteristic and quality has been passing via thoughts of Indian community ;one generation after another generation, from the year of independence (1947) or since the year of recognition of democracy (1950) , of India. Thus ,emergence of social leadership quality, in social sector (Political, non-political, literary, cultural, traditional field etc.) are very logical and very familiar for our country .It may be better to think, on this prospects also ;in the duration of :-

    Community SFM Processing:-
    (1) Initiation : Followed by
    (2) Continuation: Simultaneously or Followed by
    (3) Management, according to necessity,
    till ending of the consequences ,as a part of Community Participation ;towards sustainability of protected forests and towards sustainability of Tree Outside Forest. Sustainability may be in the direction of more fruitful; if proper conservation, uniform maintenance, or necessary enhancement of vulnerable ,endangered, rare, threatened species etc. of florae and faunae are undertaken. These three measures together, or any two measures together, or any single one or judicious mixture of these three or two measures may be effective, to maintain sustainability. In this way, to formulate policy and principles of community participation, historical analysis may be effective to few extents; in the Nationalistic division (e.g. formation of countries etc.) or unification of the countries towards continents of the globe. It is necessary to gain knowledge on conceptual historical infrastructural and economic infrastructural history of Country formation (as Indian origin of Mauritius), of the globe, status of the opposition parties of different countries ,electional configurations and infrastructures mainly of European Countries (as of union) etc. and of African countries; based on sensitization factors to unify the different oppositional or administrational (as Governments) parties of the other countries, towards India, with reference as intermediate position of India, in the globe. These factors may help to enhance global status of our country ; as like the, religious belief and faith were the base of formation of Pakistan and East Pakistan (Bangladesh, at Present). Then, what might be the concept of MIDDLE Pakistan ,before the year 1947 or 1950 or for the presents’ B(Bangladesh).N.P.? Still, there may be a internationalist relationships between these two above mentioned countries./////////////////////////////////////////

    In Context to Local Community Participation:-
    Study of food-webs or food-chains or mixture of food-webs of different types and its sustainability, maintenance, through monitoring and evaluation by the local communities (through guidance and direction of proper authority, individuals) may forward towards sufficiently fruitful community participation for S-F-M and for S-TOF-M, in regional or local aspects. Senior communities (as rural parents, guardians etc.) may be sensitized or inspired for such type of activities, by providing free supportive general education ;to their children or to the interested ,but depressed uneducated youths (male and female) ,following their school curriculum/syllabus and required educational interests respectively (Educational Community Participation for SFM). With supportive general education (at certain intervals of few days, in a week);it is also possible to offer knowledge on food-webs, anti-environmental communities phenomena etc.(it may be towards virginity concept of forests)to attempt for sustainability of biodiversity and abio-diversity as portions of Forest Management Practices ,in regional aspects.
    Offering free supportive general education (e.g. to village children / youth etc.) may be or almost is the best, simple & clear path; for community sensitization ,of community sustainability. Parallely, it may also be possible to know about local economic values of the forest (through Holistic approach),trees ,plants, shrubs, etc. ;which are maintained by definite household / families etc. to proceed towards Forest Resource Accounting (FRA) ,then Sustainable Forest Certification , by imitating the Criteriae and Indicators and then towards, initiation of sustainable export on local ,regional ,national or international basis (it may be through ‘Stillwell Road’ connecting Locally Kungming of South China through Burma from Assam of India) ;accompanied by proper revenue planning ;with financial courtesy and with CRITERIAE of donor groups / agencies established in, local towards global level ,and their implementation towards local or micro level for SFM .The indicators of such Direct CRITERIAE of donor groups/agencies /establishments etc., for Sustainable Forest Management (With S-TOF-M) are also present and is not clear in my mind till now.
    Regarding Local Criteriae & Indicators :
    (1) Degree and impact (that can be measured by different parameters as livelihood, pollution by insecticides, pesticides, inorganic fertilizers, population etc. of human being ) from surrounding human habitat ,on an area of environmental Secondary Community Succession (Denudation),may also ,probably be a indicator of the FIXED Criterion 1: “Maintenance/increase in the extent of forest and tree cover”, mainly in single study area level ,of secondary succession. Because, in the duration of secondary succession, when first floral community /communities are decreased in number ,in mass, by natural sustainable phenomena (Floral destructive phase of Secondary succession ,but this destruction and regeneration is very systematic with many sub-steps, and there may be some sub-indicators for this),human activities directly or indirectly affect the naturally changing area, (as by chemical fertilizers, insecticides ,pesticides etc.) ,mainly by flood-water flow ,in or about simultaneously of the summer season; from tea-gardens , cultivational , agricultural field , by single individual or from organized sectors, of investment towards lands. Thus, amount of specific fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides , applied in or near an area of an Secondary Succession ,may be Indicator or even Sub-Indicator (Study of some sub-indicators within an Indicator may temporarily be helpful, supportive ,for the study duration),if in details; leading to lessen ,in tree number and also influencing the Criterion 1 : Maintenance/increase in the extent of forest & tree cover, for increase of trees and forests in successive generation .Interdependency (may lead towards Sub-indicators) of one flora on other flora, fauna etc. [as water-hyacinth is noticed with some other florae, which are the feeding, even nesting places of some endangered species of semi-aquatic birds etc. may play major role during destruction and regeneration phases of secondary succession.
    (2)Change of position of NICHE (Mainly of nests) ,of few species of birds, in the same plant or in species of same plant, have also been guessed by me, due to interferences of human community ,pertaining to unsustainability in the area leading towards, decrease in number of florae /Trees/ Shrubs or decrease in number of current leaves, twigs etc. in a single vital plant/tree etc., affecting the current Food-web there.
    *It is essential the preparation of the infrastructure for institutionalization of Criteriae and Indicators concept among the students of Schools/Colleges and so on, as preliminary initiative step, trying for coverage of more districts of Assam (Upper Assam & Lower Assam)and very few extent of Arunachal Pradesh.
    *It is better to exist single office level [Governmental ,non-governmental ,Private ,Limited (Ltd.) etc.] C & I, even up-to branch and sub-branch level, collaborative & pertaining to local community/area, where activities of the particular office , has to be implemented..

    Point =4 :

    Central Board of Excise and Customs may focuses policies and instrumental models etc. towards Directorate General of Valuation (Based on sustainablility standard measurement of raw materials) ,towards Directorate General of Export Promotion etc. for forest certification, through application of Criteria and Indicators System of Sustainable Forest Management as a tool.
    Most of the taxable goods are forest products, including Timber products and Non-Timber products of legally protected (eg. of Reserve Forests etc .) forests and of Tree Outside Forest(TOF) area etc.. Almost all the market goods for consumption by customers are produced from forest resources as timber ,non-timber , ethnobotanical ,ethnozoological, modernized ornamental ,luxurial, house-hold products of different types etc., Which are directly or indirectly collected from biotic components(organic or living form as florae, faunae etc.) or from abiotic components ( inorganic or non-living form as land, water streams ,soil ,rock etc. in natural conditions and arrangements) of legally protected forests and of tree outside forests, technically. We may study, assess and evaluate the sustainability status concentering towards the managerial operations of the concerned Industrial Companies, Limiteds ,Corporations who share, involve ,manage human resources ,in their production strategy for that particular business organization ;at local level .We may measure in a scale system ,how much the producer establishments[ e.g. Indian Company or Foreign Company etc. of a particular country ( in the era of globalization); of and in which country, forest certification has already been partially or adequately implemented or initiated or on the proceedings of initiation’s probability] have followed the protocol ,as the bureau of Indian Standards etc. and so on. The commercial, business and trading establishments that have followed the Forest Certification Criteria concerning C and I of SFM, in alliance of ,and followed by the Forest Stewardship Council’s principles etc. may be proposed for further consultation by concerned Central Ministries ,to promote rebate etc. on different taxation, by the policy instruments of Directorate or Commissionerate of valuation etc. ;as the part of custody in the chaining system. Taxation on local tea gardens may also be summarized in this probable design and model, as a nationally proposed Central Excise and Custom’s Tax Rebatable Forest Certification Initiative ,to inspire the commercial institutions, business groups etc. towards SFM initiatives. It may be a institutionalization attempt of C and I of SFM, F. Certification among industrial sector ,promoting Sustainable Industrialization.
    Shading trees planted in local tea-gardens are shelter, resting and also feeding place of many birds, reptiles etc. of endangered ,rare, threatened species .Tea plants (where chemical pesticides ,insecticides are common ,for efficient production of Tea leaves) shelter, provide environment of their food ,perennially to some endangered species as Funambulus(Squirrel), Herpestes( Mongoose), Manis (Scaly anteater), occasionally Slow loris (Nycticebus coucang) ,Macaca mulatta (Rhesus monkey ), Tiger (Panthera tigris),Leopard (Panthera pardus), Indian garden Lizard (Calotes versicolor), Burmese Python(Python molurus bivittatus) ,Red-necked Keelback (Rhabdophis subminiatus ;near Jokai Reserve Forests), Monocled Cobra (Naja kaouthia), Bengal Vulture (Gyps bengalensis),Adjutant Stork(Leptoptilos dubius), Leptoptilos javanicus,different species of owls etc.. Tigers shelter temporarily in the tea-gardens in search of domestic cattles of nearby revenew areas/villages etc., as food in decreased forest scenario. These facts may be the grassroot levels foundation and tools for assessment and measurements of sustainability status of the T-O-F (Tree outside Forests),for standardization, in context to production (Excise Department) and Transport (Customs Department)taxation rebate. Rebate in taxes or accompanied provisions etc. may be provided by the concerned ministry ,(Ministry of Technical Coordination, e.g. Ministry of Sustainable Forest Management and of Forest Certification, for monitoring the parameters of sustainability etc. , if followed by other Ministries) may be also effective for fund generation for Forest Certification and Sustainable forest Management in India ; in collaboration with the countries where Forest Certification has been already satisfiedly effective ,as for example, Ministry of Refugee is being activated in some other countries, based on necessity.
    Forest certification, may summarize First Party Certification, Second Party Certification ,Third Party Certification ,as the three components of Chain of Custody (CoC), may be more technically authentic in local level.

    Point =5 :

    Application of Constructive Marxism in democratic SFM community:
    Theoretical Marxian Philosophy, applied by Stalin (Stalinism) may be in favor of village (Forest villages and revenue villages) community, and also for semi-rural (with urban impact), semi-urban (with rural Impact) or for urban human community, locally or regionally. On the duration of , J.V. Stalin in Union of Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR), Russia was developing ,rapidly, in economic or other fields; within a very short duration after the Soviet Bolshevik Revolution (Year 1917).
    Principles of Stalinism favored and proceeded towards ,democratism criteria(as in case of administration and sovereignty ,rights and privilege etc.) after the decade of Soviet revolution. Thus system of administration etc. of USSR proceeded towards the politically Nationalistic demarcation of democratism; with the help of Applied Marxian principles, through Stalinism; up to the end of Communist role in the Republic ;through foreign intervention (as by West European Countries; to help the proletariat and by the ,nowadays very common the civil war).The end of the Russian revolutionary administrative consequences was inauguration of political party based, one definite type of democracy.
    Direction of change of global human society presumed from historical study may also be beneficial. It may be better effective to apply and implement the chose principles and theories of constructive democratism favoring Karl Marxian Stalinism [Probably, which contributed in the emergence of Socialism concept (For Socialist party ) ;keeping aside communist ideology (of communist parties) in India after the first congress formation by the year 1885.];mainly in the villagers” society (e.g. forest villages, revenue villages etc.) in the view of forest Management Committees of different objectives in India, mainly in the North-Eastern region ,for successful poverty eradication attempt (With the recognized definition of poor, proletarian and labourer, which are the main voting forces of human social classes in India).Thus the entire revenues from the forests under villagers” ethical ownership may be given to the councils of village/tribal people (With reference to Verrier Elwin”s view);which may be used by the same people for the development of their villages, under monitoring and supervision of the central government. Such arrangement will place much greater responsibility on the council’s ethics and will thus strengthen them ,for an ecologically sustainable economic environment .As they come to realize that ,they are managing their own forests ,it may be an “Ethics Developing Attempt” for sustainable forest management. They may take more care of forests; for nothing creates a stronger sense of responsibility than the possession and control over money (Ref. Verrier Elwin). Such theme may be a tool and attempt for entering into the concept of Ethical (Sustainable)Consumerism. The ethics may be stable or may be changed by immigration of human being .Locally or regionally; ethical consumerism in the direction of Sustainable Forest Ethical Management (SFEM);to achieve Sustainable Ethical Consumerism (SEC),may be viewed through new Sub-Criteriae or indicators/sub-indicators/Co-indicators concepts under the range of Criteriae of Sustainable Forest Management of IIFM-ITTO; also with the concept of Urban Sustainable Ethical Consumerism ,Semi –urban Sustainable Ethical Consumerism ,Semi-rural Sustainable Ethical Consumerism ,Rural Sustainable Ethical Consumerism, mainly on local basis, distinguishing Ethical Concept of forest goods and services consumerism from the concepts of Ethical forest goods and services consumerism. The principles by giving greater authority and dignity to the tribal/village councils, extending their own control over forests; with monitoring of sustainability of their forest by the villagers/tribes through Joint Sustainable Forest Management Committee (J-SFM-C),additionally with Joint Forest Management Committee(JFMC) ;under the shadow of central administration(e.g. Cabinet and so on); with Stalinism concept may be one of the effective tools ,to determine Verification Status (Verifier) for overall well-being of forests (including florae, faunae etc.) and of human community ;within the concept of Sustainable Forest Management by human (mainly villagers) community ,in local or regional scenarios.
    NOW, Principle
    [The fundamental law may be applied form of Karl Marxian principles’ as Stalinism; focusing on farmers/peasants (for all agricultural Sectors)and labourers (including each field or sector of economical society and humanity concerned society)]

    In my general outlook, Criterion 1 (Maintenance/increase in the extent of forest and tree cover) proceeds and views towards natural virgin forests and its indicators, as 1.1,1.2,1.3,1.4, (e.g. 1.2 Percentage of forest with secured boundaries of IIFM-ITTO) indicates ,the consequences of resultant human activities ;in the direction of engulfing Sustainability of natural status of forests.
    Regarding Agroforestry:
    Implementation of Agroforestry plan ;in surrounding or near by forest area, may assimilate with near by natural forest area; through a natural phenomena (e.g. by wind pollination or by other Vectors) or such agroforestry or plantation by human being (for restoration attempt of florae or plant species with conservational and enhancement attempt of faunae ,by providing shelter place or nesting place or food or niche habitat etc. for them in the plantation area) may be required through ecological and environmental demand locally. It may be possible to assess sustainability of such summation of natural forest and man-made plantation and agro-forest , through sub-indicator concept; which can be included within the range of a particular indicator or co-assist a indicator,”1.4 Change in the tree cover outside forest area.”
    Globally accepted definition of Sustainable Development is, ”Development that meets the needs of present generations without Compromising the ability of future generations; to meet their own needs.”
    Thus the fact may also be that extraction of different types of forest resources (as timber, non-wood forest products etc.);from a natural virgin forest “to meet the needs of present generations” is possible up to conversion of the natural forest land (with aquatic, moist land etc.) towards bare land or to bare land; through a stepwise human needs. Subsequent agroforestry planting and implementation ,in that particular bare land may compromise the “Ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. Agroforestry that can also be in the direction of compensating/fulfilling of human needs, may also favor Criterion 1.Maintenance/INCREASE in the extent of forest and tree cover; for the future generations or for the generations of successive centuries. Sustainable Forest Management (SFM), as undeniable part of Sustainable Development; can contribute ,in this prospects ,through indicatoral view.

    Change in forest cover in the direction of :

    Dense Forest -> Open Forest -> Scrub Forest -> Pasture Forest -> Desert Forest ;
    favoring Secondary Succession may be also (e.g. as conversion of land forests to the form of water streams) ;decrease in forest and tree cover by Secondary Succession and so on ,may also be an indicator for Sustainable Forest Management.

    Foundational Concept of sustainable forest management may better to be based on natural phenomena,as food-chain,food-web etc. ,accompanied by human need based.

  3. Rupam Kumar Gogoi says:

    Point=5 :

    Sustainable forest management (SFM) may be considered as first initiative
    ; former to sustainable socio-economic development; to become successful in
    perennial global issues as “sustainable development”. If sustainable forest
    management (SFM) becomes effective ( but ,it seems better to manage sustainably
    the trees, shrubs etc. outside legally protected forest areas also, as in rural
    home boundaries, in the alluvium etc., which also have huge contribution to
    environmental well-beings, towards man-made sustainability) , then
    conservation, maintenance and even enhancement of biodiversity and
    abiodiversity also will occur spontaneously, which are important for sustainable socio-economic development.

    Measurement of majority of sustainability, with short
    periodicity will help more to post-measurement planning and implementation
    locally, effectively to former assessment of sustainability ; in the direction
    of sustainable socio-economic development, which is biotic. In North-Eastern
    Region, it may be possible to look-out the natural or man-made factors, which
    helps to measure future local sustainability in a very small area in comparison
    to global environmental area. The factors may be locally placed into biotic
    factors (found out in a human impacted area of protected forests and in
    unprotected residential forests etc.) and abiotic factors ( factors found in
    virgin forests, almost free from impact of human-beings) within the range of
    biotic criteria and abiotic criteria.

    In this area, locally
    it may be possible to find –out the
    biotic indicators, which will indicate a effectiveness of a criteria ,for
    those indicators to be decided or
    determined and also to find out the abiotic indicators without the theme of
    pests, diseases , weeds etc. regarding
    the modern human-beings ; since these themes were not considered by a
    sustainable ancient primitive forest. Forest diseases ,weeds etc. may also
    be the parts of natural
    sustainable food-web, in a destructive succession, as denudation.

    The biotic indicators may be viewed-up with human recognised media( as
    deforestation, grazing etc.)

    It should be
    attempted towards meeting or overcoming the collaborative challenges, in case
    of bio-energy resources , FRA etc. by U.S.A. or near by collaborative
    organizations and countries of European
    Unions ; towards South –East Asia or other developing or African countries
    etc., some of which area may include the tropical forests; and that may be a
    part of global sustainability.

    In regional context, a deserted road (Stillwell Road, named in memory of
    Major General Joseph Warren Stillwell ;during second world war ,of the length
    about 1726 Kilometer to Kungming of South China) is being reconstructed from
    Assam to China through Burma,mainly for trading purpose. It is better to
    concentre on the environmental
    sustainability in this Bio-diversity hot-spot with such developmental
    perspectives.A few traditional economic cultures are going on ,still ,in this
    area. Some raw –materials are transferred towards the other parts of the
    country, for final production, marketing etc.. Trading of local sustainable raw materials through
    Stillwell Pathway towards south-east Asia, due to facilitation of open and free
    globalised marketing and trading, may influence local level sustainable economic developmental attempt, directly with
    international level approaches, in future ; covering local or regional
    aggregate sustainable economic and socio-economic development ,or on overall
    economy of North-East region, with domestic industrial product deterioration
    too.

  4. Rupam Kumar Gogoi says:

    Point=6:

    Effectiveness of ongoing C & I:

    There may be some measures and
    procedures, to increase the effectiveness of C & I of SFM and S-TOF-M. Measures may be the
    primary broad-view; through which different procedures may be forwarded, based
    on suitability ; i.e. within a single type of measure, there may be different
    parallel procedures , to increase the effectiveness of C & I implementation. By successful implementation
    and application of principles of C &
    I , it

    may be possible into enter
    into the concept of sustainable village, town or city formation , or possible
    to give the shape of an ideal
    sustainable village, sustainable town or city ; in the unsustainable areas
    with anti or not-favoring environmental
    activities. C & I should be deeply measured and assessed,as a tool of EIA
    (Environmental Impact Assessment ), in local, regional, national level
    etc. Dissimilar C
    & I among local levels (which are not found in regional level or in national
    level or even in international level) is
    better to compare , analyze and evaluate among themselves , to distinguish
    forest specificity; for making C& I
    assessment, more effective, in such different context or level. Proper policy, techniques
    and principles are better to determine ;to make the pathway of C & I
    effective in organized and unorganized industrial sector and society, organized
    (as self-help group

    etc.) and unorganized (as
    farmer’s productivity etc.) economic productivity sector and society, or in the
    sector and society of intermediate
    products’ industry etc. ; with a
    path-way free from , complex democratic
    socio-political aspects of land and activity [ Impact of constituency ( central
    and state ) , Local, Traditional, or immigrational human population numbers
    etc.] It may be better to ,increase the
    effectiveness of C & I , attempt in international level, in re-construction
    and formation ; through an agreement among the participating countries (Perhaps
    up to ITTO level) ,by following-up the conditions , leaded by C & I system
    , in case of as was Afghanistan reconstruction , with any types of initiative
    (industrial or other economic sector etc.) of the countries , in the range
    of globalisation or in other trends of interests of international communities.
    It may be global initiative of any country , in case of C & I , in

    sustainable reconstruction, urbanization, or
    in industrialization effort in country
    level etc. To determine the
    intra-industrial C & I , intra-industrial technology should be studied and observed in this area.
    After that , technological activities , not favorable to the environmental sustainability have to be listed and thus C
    & I ,in industrial level , in different industry types ,have to be
    determined, to consult and suggest , for changed or modified techniques and methodology to be applied, to
    increase the effectiveness of C & I , in industries, as a part of sustainable industrialization.

  5. Rupam Kumar Gogoi says:

    Sir,Ambiguous Forest Vitality may be assessed,evaluated by using the distinct ,clear remaining Indicators of SFM.I shall be happy to get further guideline,basically on Statistical point of view,since I have very low ,clear concept on Such statistical review………….Regards Rupam

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