For many Indigenous communities, land titles aren’t the same as tenure security

In communities’ visions of a secure future, good governance, transparency, and respect for customary rights matter more than a piece of paper
, Monday, 6 Feb 2023
Women resin transporters, walk as carry resin from the fields to the village, for one kilo they earn Rp. 600, – and usually they can carry fifty kilos one way in Penengahan village, Pesisir Barat regency, Lampung province, Indonesia. Photo by Ulet Ifansasti/CIFOR

With international climate negotiations putting Indigenous Peoples and other local communities in the spotlight for climate funding, more attention is being paid to protecting those groups’ rights to their land and forest.

That often takes the form of land titling programs, but titles alone don’t guarantee rights. And while tenure security can make communities more secure, exactly what that means varies from place to place, according to a new study by the Center for International Forestry Research and World Agroforestry (CIFOR-ICRAF).

“I think a lot of people still believe that land titles grant tenure security, and it’s hard to get away from this idea,” said CIFOR-ICRAF principal scientist Anne Larson. “Data show that people often consider a piece of paper reassuring — a sign of legitimacy meaning that others will respect their rights. But anyone who has worked in this field for very long knows how limited a title can be.”

Larson has seen cases in which a newly titled community’s leader has sold off forest rights to the highest bidder, or an Indigenous community has won title only to have government agencies fail to support its efforts to defend itself against settlers who invade its land.

“It’s frustrating to share in the victory of seeing a title granted to an Indigenous community that has been fighting for it for so long, only to see all the apparent advantages of having that title practically eroded by the time it is delivered,” she said.

So what do communities expect from land tenure?

“In a study that included communities in Indonesia, Uganda and Peru, we found that many things matter for the well-being of Indigenous Peoples and local communities, but secure tenure is the foundation,” Larsen said. “The study shows how multiple factors that influence well-being are interconnected.”

If a title does not ensure tenure security, however, what does?

Visions of the future

When Larson and her colleagues dug into what forest dwellers mean by tenure security, they found that it varies from place to place but with important common threads.

They used a method called participatory prospective analysis, in which people involved in tenure issues — community members, government representatives, members of non-governmental organizations and academics — created future scenarios involving land and forests.

The result, Larson said, was a more comprehensive understanding of how tenure relates to the livelihoods, identity, and the overall well-being of local communities.

The three countries were chosen because they reflected various tenure models, from ownership of forest resources by Indigenous or traditional communities to arrangements in which communities and state entities share forest management.

Multiple workshops were held in the three countries in 2015 and 2016, leading the participants through a five-step process. In the first step, they defined their situation, answering questions such as: ‘What is the future of tenure security in this region 20 years from now?’

Once that was defined, they identified factors that could have a positive or negative impact on forest and land tenure. They then examined how those factors affected each other, to identify the most influential or ‘driving’ forces — the ones that could lead to a domino effect

After determining what those drivers would look like if they were positive or negative, the participants chose the most logical combinations of factors to create a variety of different potential future scenarios. They built narratives around those, and in Peru, an artist produced drawings of each. The groups then created action plans to work toward their desired futures.

Examples of the drawing of an optimistic and pessimistic scenario from the Peru sites. Illustrations by Lesky Zamora Rios (watercolor on paper and digitized).

Context and history matter

Communities in the regions chosen for the study have different types of tenure and face various pressures from outside their territories, and the scenarios the workshop participants developed show that local characteristics and history are important.

In Peru’s Loreto and Madre de Dios regions, the government has been granting titles to Indigenous communities, but many communities still lack titles, and overlapping claims abound. Communities do not have rights to subsoil resources, such as oil and minerals, and can use forest resources but cannot own them.

In positive future scenarios, workshop participants stressed coordination between national and local governments and between the government and communities, a central role for Indigenous Peoples, transparency, effective monitoring, and governments with sufficient capacities and resources. Negative scenarios, which represented backsliding in rights, included elements such as a lack of government coordination, lack of interest in Indigenous issues and corruption.

In Indonesia’s biodiversity-rich Maluku region, much of the forest is managed by communities under a customary system, while in the Lampung province of Sumatra, the expansion of commercial plantations led to a tenure reform under which communities manage state forest areas. As in Peru, overlapping claims are a source of conflict in both places.

Positive visions of the future included consistent and transparent policies, government support for communities and respect for customary rights, and a greater role for women in managing forest resources. Negative scenarios included unclear policies, forest degradation, inadequate budgets, poor coordination, and lack of collaborative forest management.

In Uganda, workshops were held in three regions: Lamwo, where forests are managed through customary, clan-based institutions; Masindi, with a mix of private, government-managed, and communal forests; and Kibaale, where most forests are on private land.

Positive scenarios stressed the importance of collaboration between government and communities, trained government staff, adequate funding, available information, and highly participatory policy development. Negative visions of the future were characterized by corruption, lack of government support and funding, unclear policies, political favouritism, and lack of community participation in forest management. The published study includes a model of factors that influence security.

The scenarios clearly show that for forest dwellers, legal rights are only one aspect of tenure security, Larson said. Government officials and others must also listen to communities’ needs and help them bring their visions of the future to fruition, taking into account the different factors that make that possible in each place.

“Our research findings suggest that communities’ visions of a positive future depend on factors besides titles, especially community governance, the role of the state and the relationship between communities and the state,” she added. “A title will only bring security if other conditions are in place, and although those conditions have some general characteristics, such as organized communities, they also are specific to a place’s context and history.”

What does this mean for scholars and practitioners of community and Indigenous land rights? “It means deeper engagement with Indigenous Peoples and local communities,” she said, “as well as the importance of listening to peoples’ needs and visions for the future, supporting their self-determination to act on these and fostering the enabling conditions in each specific context.”

The Global Comparative Study on Forest Tenure Reform, carried out by the Center for International Forestry (CIFOR), was funded by the European Commission and the Global Environmental Facility (GEF), with technical support from the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).

This study was part of the CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions and Markets (PIM), led by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), and the CGIAR Research Program on Forest, Trees and Agroforestry (FTA), which was led by CIFOR.


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Framing up the community-centred future of peatland management | Center for International Forestry Research

Framing up the community-centred future of peatland management

Experts share knowledge from long-term research in Indonesia and beyond
, Friday, 6 Feb 2015
Kubu Raya, West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Photo by Ricky Martin/CIFOR

Indonesia has the third-largest area of biodiversity-rich tropical forests in the world. The archipelago is considered one of the world’s 17 ‘megadiverse’ countries and houses two of the 25 global biodiversity ‘hotspots’. In 2015, however, the country experienced its worst forest fire disaster in almost two decades. In September and October that year, carbon emissions released by the fires reached 11.3 million tons per day – higher than the emissions of the entire European Union, which released 8.9 million tons daily over the same period.


In response to the disaster – and as part of wider efforts to restore 14 million hectares of degraded land, including two million hectares of peatlands – the Korean and Indonesian governments have developed a peatland restoration project which focuses on the ‘3Rs’: rewetting, revegetation, and revitalization. Activities include rewetting infrastructure, revegetating over 200 hectares with tree planting, and land revitalization in 10 villages surrounding the project site, as well as the creation of a small peatland education centre.


“We believe that this peatland restoration project will help create a sustainable ecosystem and have a productive impact on the community,” said Junkyu Cho, Korean Co-Director of the Korea-Indonesia Forest Cooperation Center (KIFC), during a symposium to share knowledge and experience gained from peatland restoration initiatives in several locations across Indonesia, on 7 December 2022 at CIFOR’s Bogor campus. The international symposium also aimed to enhance the network of researchers involved in peatland restoration and governance.


The research team, which hails from Korea’s National Institute of Forest Science (NIFoS) and the Center for International Forestry Research and World Agroforestry (CIFOR-ICRAF), will develop a model for restoring peatlands and other degraded lands in Indonesia in ways that make the most of science and technology and improve local livelihoods.


“We hope that various issues, such as climate change adaptation, nature-based solutions, and bioeconomy will be explored under the rubric of peatlands,” said Hyungsoon Choi, the director of NIFoS’ Global Forestry Research Division. The researchers are also helping to develop sustainable community-based reforestation and enterprises, said CIFOR-ICRAF Senior Scientist Himlal Baral.  


During the symposium, Baral also shared information on CIFOR-ICRAF’s long-term Sustainable Community-based Reforestation and Enterprises (SCORE) project, which runs for the same period as the UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration and provides valuable opportunities for research. The study involves identifying areas for restoration, and for planting sustainable timber and non-timber forest products. “We start with small demonstration trials, and we hope to scale up and achieve long-term impacts,” he said, adding that smart agroforestry is one of the options for restoration.


Nisa Novita, from local NGO Yayasan Konservasi Alam Nusantara (YKAN), shared some of her research into the mitigation potential of natural climate solutions for Indonesia. Her team found that the country offers a dramatic opportunity to contribute to tackling climate change by increasing carbon sequestration and storage through the protection, improved management, and restoration of drylands, peatlands, and mangrove ecosystems. “Protecting, managing, and restoring Indonesia’s wetlands is key to achieving the country’s emissions reduction target by 2030,” she said.


Several presenters shared models for cost-effective restoration. A-Ram Yang of NIFoS’ Global Forestry Division discussed a visit to the Perigi peatland landscape in South Sumatra in September 2022. Meanwhile, a team from Korea’s Kookmin University shared their experience assessing ecosystem services in North Korea’s forests with a view to adapting these for use in Indonesia.


Budi Leksono, a senior researcher at the Research Center for Plant Conservation and the Forestry, National Research, and Innovation Agency (BRIN), spoke of the potential of genetic improvement to serve restoration goals. “The use of improved seeds for plantation forests has been proven to increase the productivity and quality of forest products,” he said. “In accordance with the goal of restoration in Indonesia to restore trees and forests to degraded forest landscapes on a large scale, it should also be applied to the landscape restoration program to increase the added value of the land, and will have an impact on increasing ecological resilience and productivity.”


On a similar note, in a research collaboration with CIFOR-ICRAF, scientists at Sriwijaya University (UNSRI) developed a model for landscape restoration to be applied to species with high economic value, which includes using improved seeds for certain species such as Calophyllum inophyllum, and Pongamia pinnata. One of the scientists, Agus Suwignyo, said that “the use of improved seeds for landscape restoration will have an impact on people’s welfare if this is also followed by implementing a planting pattern that is in accordance with the conditions of the land and the needs of the local community.”


Participating farmers also chose their own preferred species, such as jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), avocado (Persea americana), mango (Mangifera indica), nangkadak (a hybrid of Artocarpus heterophillus and Artocarpus integer), sapodilla (Manilkara zapota), oranges (Citrus sp.), soursop (Annona muricata), rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) and betel or areca palm (Areca catechu). From 2018 to 2020, UNSRI helped local farmers to develop smart agrosilvofishery, improved rice cultivation, introduce other economical rice crops, plant trees, and cultivate various local fish species.


The method showed positive results. “During the long dry season in 2018, the surrounding area was burned by other farmers, but our demo plot area was not burned,” said Suwignyo. “This year, we scaled up the area to 10 hectares.” The story echoed a common theme within the symposium: the importance of well-planned, multidisciplinary, evidence-based restoration that puts both people and nature first.

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En quête d’une formule pour réussir la restauration des paysages forestiers | Center for International Forestry Research

En quête d’une formule pour réussir la restauration des paysages forestiers

Trois leçons à tirer de la République démocratique du Congo
, Tuesday, 11 May 2021
Illustration: CIFOR/Papy Basikaba

Une restauration des paysages forestiers réussie ne se résume pas à la simple action de planter des arbres, ou de faire pousser des plantules dans une pépinière pour les replanter dans un champ. Le processus est bien plus long et complexe qu’il n’y paraît. Les humains et les arbres entretiennent une relation symbiotique, et l’entretien d’une zone restaurée, la préservation des arbres sur pied sur le long terme et jusqu’à leur maturité, requiert un élément indispensable : l’appropriation locale. L’amélioration des conditions de vie dans la communauté donc joue un rôle essentiel.

Et c’est là un des enseignements majeurs qui se dégage des travaux menés depuis 2018 par l’équipe de terrain du Centre de recherche forestière internationale (CIFOR) et ses partenaires locaux en République démocratique du Congo (RDC) dans la Réserve de biosphère de Yangambi, une aire forestière protégée au nord du pays.

Cette semaine marquait la plantation d’un million d’arbres.

Ce projet de restauration, qui fait partie d’une initiative plus large visant à raviver l’économie locale de Yangambi, à créer des emplois verts et à augmenter la productivité des terres, offre une solution efficace et peu coûteuse pour améliorer les moyens de subsistance et répondre aux besoins énergétiques et nutritionnels locaux, tout en réduisant la pression sur les forêts naturelles.

Dans une infographie récemment publiée, le CIFOR décrit les composantes clés du modèle mis en œuvre en RDC.

  1. La restauration sert un objectif

Les communautés qui vivent dans la forêt ont besoin des arbres pour satisfaire tout un éventail de besoins, alimentaires et énergétiques entre autres. Si l’on doit protéger les forêts naturelles, alors ces populations doivent pouvoir accéder à ces ressources autrement.

À Yangambi, la plupart de la déforestation a lieu pour répondre à ces besoins essentiels. Chaque saison, la population locale empiète toujours plus loin dans la forêt, et la brûle pour obtenir des terres cultivables et du bois énergie. Le bois de chauffe est utile pour la cuisson des repas, tandis que la production de charbon représente une activité économique et une source de revenus conséquentes, puisqu’il est vendu à la ville voisine de Kisangani. Pour que le développement soit durable, les efforts doivent s’orienter vers l’intensification agricole et la production d’énergie améliorée sur des terres déjà dégradées.

Pour y arriver, il est nécessaire d’associer des solutions techniques judicieuses (des cultures alternatives et l’agroforesterie par exemple), à une adhésion et un consentement total de la part des utilisateurs des terres. Ceci revient à faire la preuve des avantages potentiels des nouvelles techniques, ou des changements de comportement, dans des parcelles appartenant à des pionniers locaux prêts à passer le pas. Face aux avantages observés, les autres exploitants seraient plus enclins à adopter ces techniques améliorées.

D’autres facteurs socioéconomiques doivent également être pris en compte. Dans le cas de Yangambi par exemple, les arbres porteurs de fruits et de chenilles sont évidemment précieux pour améliorer les régimes alimentaires ; et les essences indigènes à forte valeur peuvent contribuer à un revenu dont les populations ont grandement besoin. Mais pour des questions foncières, les populations locales préfèrent d’abord planter des arbres à croissance rapide et au pouvoir calorifique élevé pour répondre à leurs besoins immédiats en énergie. La qualité des régimes alimentaires et les revenus à long terme doivent bien sûr rester en tête des priorités, mais ils ne doivent pas pour autant être imposés car cela risquerait de ne pas mener aux résultats espérés. Et c’est précisément là que l’appropriation locale est cruciale.

  1. La restauration par, et pour, la population

Le travail de restauration ne s’arrête jamais à Yangambi. Si les arbres sont mis en terre au cours des deux saisons des pluies annuelles, les préparatifs, eux, se déroulent tout au long de l’année.

Pendant que l’équipe « technique », constituée de membres de la communauté et dirigée conjointement par le CIFOR, l’Institut National pour l’Étude et la Recherche Agronomique (INERA), et l’entreprise R&SD, s’occupe de trouver les semences, de préparer les plantules dans la pépinière et de toute la partie logistique, une équipe de « sensibilisation » reste au contact de la communauté toute l’année. Ces contacts comprennent des discussions quotidiennes, pour sélectionner conjointement les parcelles à restaurer ; comprendre les problématiques foncières (identifier les propriétaires coutumiers et les utilisateurs munis d’un droit d’accès) ; cartographier et convenir des limites à respecter pour éviter les conflits ; recruter des planteurs et d’autres personnels de soutien avec le consentement des familles, des chefs locaux et des autorités ; et veiller à ce que l’objectif des activités menées (tant en termes de bénéfices que de responsabilité) soit clair pour toutes les personnes impliquées.

La sensibilisation doit se poursuivre bien après la plantation, avec la formation d’équipes de brigadiers locaux, mises en place pour protéger les jeunes arbres des feux de brousse (qui représentent un danger mortel) et s’assurer que des pratiques innovantes simples, telles que le défrichage régulier des champs, continuent.

L’un des avantages à court terme pour la population locale est la création d’emplois et l’augmentation des revenus disponibles. Plus de 500 personnes sont embauchées à chaque saison de plantation. Grâce à la restauration, de nouveaux moyens de subsistance alternatifs, capables de compléter les revenus tout en permettant de mieux comprendre et travailler la terre, deviennent envisageables.

  1. La restauration par l’agroforesterie

Une grande partie des terres agricoles de Yangambi est dégradée, ne produisant que de faibles récoltes : un fardeau pour les agriculteurs de subsistance. Pour lutter contre cette situation, une espèce d’arbre fixateur d’azote telle que l’Acacia auriculiformis peut être intégrée aux rotations agricoles, et être associée à des semences améliorées, ainsi qu’à des activités complémentaires, telles que l’apiculture et l’élevage. Pendant quelques années (jusqu’au moment où ils commenceront à tirer un bénéfice de la biomasse des arbres), avec l’expérience, les agriculteurs pourront augmenter leurs rendements et leurs profits grâce à cette combinaison d’activités.

Pour renforcer leurs capacités, les agriculteurs peuvent se rendre sur des fermes pilotes où ils peuvent observer diverses pratiques dans des environnements similaires à leurs exploitations, pour apprendre et poser des questions sur les techniques les mieux adaptées à leurs besoins. Ces fermes pilotes servent à la vulgarisation agricole, ce qui signifie que le personnel local peut aussi suivre les agriculteurs lorsqu’ils mettent en œuvre ces méthodes dans leurs propres champs, apprendre et partager leurs connaissances.

Enfin, bien que chaque ingrédient d’une restauration réussie soit généralement connu, la formule doit être spécifiquement adaptée à chaque paysage, en tenant compte des populations et de leur environnement. Autrement dit, si les principes de restauration d’un paysage sont globalement les mêmes, ce qui fonctionne à Yangambi peut ne pas fonctionner aussi bien ailleurs.

Il reste cependant important que les scientifiques et les agents de la vulgarisation continuent d’apprendre et de s’adapter à cette expérience afin de contribuer toujours plus à la restauration des paysages forestiers en RDC, et partout ailleurs en Afrique.

This research was supported by de l'Union européenne
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